Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.

  • Reflow Ovens
  • Precision, fluid dispensing systems for low volume, high mix, R&D, and high volume 24x7 production

Add Article »

1433 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

INTELLI-Pro -- The Future of Automated Optical Inspection

Jun 27, 2022 | Mirtec Corporation

In today's Electronics Manufacturing Industry, standards for defect and quality control are stricter than ever due to advancements of electronic products and increasing safety and environmental regulations. Electronics Manufacturers are forced to maximize their production efficiency by implementing lean manufacturing initiatives and optimizing production processes. With this in mind, manufacturers are relying upon Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) equipment to streamline the manufacturing process and provide real time root cause analysis of manufacturing defects. The objective is to increase profitability by improving production yields and reducing costly rework....

Publisher: MIRTEC Corp


MIRTEC has earned a solid reputation as one of the most Progressive and Dynamic Suppliers of Automated SMT Inspection Equipment to the Electronics Manufacturing Industry.

Oxford, Connecticut, USA


A Review and Analysis of Automatic Optical Inspection and Quality Monitoring Methods in Electronics Industry

Jun 27, 2022 | Abd Al Rahman M. Abu Ebayyeh, Alireza Mousavi,

Electronics industry is one of the fastest evolving, innovative, and most competitive industries. In order to meet the high consumption demands on electronics components, quality standards of the products must be well-maintained. Automatic optical inspection (AOI) is one of the non-destructive techniques used in quality inspection of various products. This technique is considered robust and can replace human inspectors who are subjected to dull and fatigue in performing inspection tasks. A fully automated optical inspection system consists of hardware and software setups. Hardware setup include image sensor and illumination settings and is responsible to acquire the digital image, while the software part implements an inspection algorithm to extract the features of the acquired images and classify them into defected and non-defected based on the user requirements. A sorting mechanism can be used to separate the defective products from the good ones. This article provides a comprehensive review of the various AOI systems used in electronics, micro-electronics, and opto-electronics industries. In this review the defects of the commonly inspected electronic components, such as semiconductor wafers, flat panel displays, printed circuit boards and light emitting diodes, are first explained. Hardware setups used in acquiring images are then discussed in terms of the camera and lighting source selection and configuration. The inspection algorithms used for detecting the defects in the electronic components are discussed in terms of the preprocessing, feature extraction and classification tools used for this purpose. Recent articles that used deep learning algorithms are also reviewed. The article concludes by highlighting the current trends and possible future research directions....

Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

IEEE is the world's largest professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity.

Piscataway, New Jersey, USA

Association / Non-Profit

FICS-PCB: A Multi-Modal Image Dataset for Automated Printed Circuit Board Visual Inspection

Jun 24, 2022 | Hangwei Lu, Dhwani Mehta, Olivia Paradis, Navid Asadizanjani, Mark Tehranipoor, and Damon L. Woodard

Over the years, computer vision and machine learning disciplines have considerably advanced the field of automated visual inspection for Printed Circuit Board (PCB-AVI) assurance. However, in practice, the capabilities and limitations of these advancements remain unknown because there are few publicly accessible datasets for PCB visual inspection and even fewer that contain images that simulate realistic application scenarios. To address this need, we propose a publicly available dataset, “FICS-PCB”1, to facilitate the development of robust methods for PCB-AVI. The proposed dataset includes challenging cases from three variable aspects: illumination, image scale, and image sensor. This dataset consists of 9,912 images of 31 PCB samples and contains 77,347 annotated components. This paper reviews the existing datasets and methodologies used for PCBAVI, discusses challenges, describes the proposed dataset, and presents baseline performances using feature engineering and deep learning methods for PCB component classification.


Publisher: University of Florida

University of Florida

The University of Florida is a public land-grant research university in Gainesville, Florida. It is a senior member of the State University System of Florida, traces its origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its ...

Gainsville, Florida, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

AIM Tech Tip Article: Pretty Slick

Jun 20, 2022 | Timothy O'Ne i l l

We've been doing a lot of print testing in our lab. In our first set of published results, "The Impact of Reduced Solder Alloy Powder Size on Solder Paste Print Performance1" from IPC/APEX 2016, we revealed a hierarchy of input variables to maximize solder paste transfer efficiency and minimize variation. In that study, we used a fully-optioned stencil as part of the equipment set. In order to tease out the data we were looking for, we could not lose critical information to the noise of stencil-induced variations....

Publisher: AIM Solder

AIM Solder

AIM is a leading global manufacturer of tin-lead and lead-free solder assembly materials for the electronics industry.

Montreal, Quebec, Canada


Introduction to Automated Test Fixtures

May 02, 2022 | Circuit Check

Testing of electronic assemblies involves three elements: the device under test, test equipment, and fixturing to make the connections between them. The challenge for a test engineer building a sophisticated test system is that instrumentation may need to measure thousands of test points through the mechanical interconnect....

Publisher: Circuit Check, Inc.

Circuit Check, Inc.

Engineering and fabrication leader of in-circuit and functional test fixtures for boards,modules and assembled products. Turnkey test programming services for GR228x platform,focusing on the technology to increase testability,dec

Maple Grove, Minnesota, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Welding method of SMT chip resistors and capacitors

Apr 29, 2022 | Wendy

Tools: soldering iron, soldering iron stand, wet sponge, tweezers, rosin, solder, absorbent cotton, 95% alcohol, chip resistors, capacitors, circuit boards, 220V power supply..... http://www.leadersmt.com/gen2/1028113523/?mod=file&col_key=download...

Publisher: Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Our company deals in the following products: Brand: Fuji, Juki, Panasonic, Yamaha, Samsung, Siemens, Sony, Universal, etc. SMT Accessories:Nozzle, feeder, filter, belt, sensor, cylinder, valve, feeder parts, bearing, etc.

ShenZhen,GuangDong, China


SMT MLCC&SMD resistance parameters and detailed explanation

Apr 28, 2022 | Wendy

I. Chip capacitors(MLCC) The full name of chip capacitors: multilayer (multilayer, laminated) chip ceramic capacitors, also known as chip capacitors, chip capacitance....

Publisher: Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Our company deals in the following products: Brand: Fuji, Juki, Panasonic, Yamaha, Samsung, Siemens, Sony, Universal, etc. SMT Accessories:Nozzle, feeder, filter, belt, sensor, cylinder, valve, feeder parts, bearing, etc.

ShenZhen,GuangDong, China


SMT chip capacitor resistor storage and processing method

Apr 27, 2022 | Wendy

SMD capacitors and resistors have small sizes and many models. Some manufacturers buy a lot of products and do not use them up in time. The problem of storage is always a headache. So how should chip capacitors and resistors be stored? There are also precautions when using chip capacitors. Please see the following information and hope it will help you....

Publisher: Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Our company deals in the following products: Brand: Fuji, Juki, Panasonic, Yamaha, Samsung, Siemens, Sony, Universal, etc. SMT Accessories:Nozzle, feeder, filter, belt, sensor, cylinder, valve, feeder parts, bearing, etc.

ShenZhen,GuangDong, China


The Effects of Temperature and Solute Diffusion on Volume Change in Sn-Bi Solder Alloys

Apr 26, 2022 | Qichao Hao, Xin F. Tan , Qinfen Gu, Keith Sweatman, Stuart D. Mcdonald, and Kazuhiro Nogita1

The different rates of thermal expansion of the many materials that make up an electronic assembly combined with temperature fluctuations are the driver of the thermal fatigue failure of solder joints. A characteristic of the Sn-Bi system, which provided the basis for many of the low process temperature solder alloys that the electronics industry is now adopting, is the very temperature-sensitive solubility of Bi and Sn in the other phase. In this study, in situ synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction was used to characterize the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of the bSn and Bi phases in Sn-57wt%Bi and Sn-37wt%Bi. The effects of temperature and solute were separated by comparing with the data from pure bSn and pure Bi and verified using density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, the coefficients of thermal expansion of bSn and during heating were also derived to reveal the thermal expansion behavior.


Publisher: University of Queensland

University of Queensland

UQ ranks in the top 50 as measured by the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities. The University also ranks 46 in the QS World University Rankings, 42 in the US News Best Global Universities Rankings, ...

Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

SMT chip capacitor naming rules and methods

Apr 26, 2022 | Wendy

The naming of the chip capacitor: The parameters included in the name of the chip capacitor include the size of the chip capacitor, the material used for this chip capacitor, the required accuracy, the required voltage, the required capacity, the requirements of the terminal and packaging requirements. Generally, the parameters to be provided for ordering a chip capacitor should be the size, the required accuracy, the voltage requirement, the capacity value, and the required brand....

Publisher: Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Leaderway Industrial Co.,Ltd

Our company deals in the following products: Brand: Fuji, Juki, Panasonic, Yamaha, Samsung, Siemens, Sony, Universal, etc. SMT Accessories:Nozzle, feeder, filter, belt, sensor, cylinder, valve, feeder parts, bearing, etc.

ShenZhen,GuangDong, China


Scalable Reliability for Consumer Electronics

Apr 19, 2022 | Mallory McGuinness

Learn how next-generation conformal coatings can add proven durability to consumer electronics without adding bulk or weight. Detailed data regarding specific battery applications including hearables, wearables, and smart home....

Publisher: HZO, Inc.

HZO, Inc.

HZO provides high-reliability Parylene conformal coatings with scalable, cost-efficient, proprietary processes. Meet specifications with RoHS, REACH, and Prop 65-compliant coatings at 50% thinness of other conformal coating types.

Morrisville, North Carolina, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

Protective Coatings for Non-Invasive Medical Devices for Real-World Reliability

Apr 19, 2022 | Mallory McGuinness

An increasing number of consumers rely on non-invasive, connected medical products exposed to variable environments to manage health conditions, and it is up to product design teams to design functional devices and make them reliable....

Publisher: HZO, Inc.

HZO, Inc.

HZO provides high-reliability Parylene conformal coatings with scalable, cost-efficient, proprietary processes. Meet specifications with RoHS, REACH, and Prop 65-compliant coatings at 50% thinness of other conformal coating types.

Morrisville, North Carolina, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

How to Resolve Smart Meter Reliability Issues with Parylene Conformal Coating

Apr 19, 2022 | Mallory McGuinness

Smart water meters provide promising capabilities, but lifetime cost factors can be a hurdle for their implementation. A single service call from a technician can exceed the total price of the smart water meter, making reliability over the entire product lifetime one of the highest design priorities. Parylene conformal coating is an ideal solution to reliability concerns, including corrosion. It also addresses issues such as sustainability and miniaturization, providing truly conformal protection that withstands the lifecycle of smart water meters....

Publisher: HZO, Inc.

HZO, Inc.

HZO provides high-reliability Parylene conformal coatings with scalable, cost-efficient, proprietary processes. Meet specifications with RoHS, REACH, and Prop 65-compliant coatings at 50% thinness of other conformal coating types.

Morrisville, North Carolina, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

iNEMI Webinar 07.07.2021 - PCB Cleaning

Apr 11, 2022 | Stefan Strixner

Agenda  Why Cleaning of electronic assemblies? - Standards - Reliability - Subsequent processes  Cleaning processes - Cleaning chemicals - Cleaning machines  Cleaning process monitoring - Bath monitoring - Result monitoring  Process cost...

Publisher: ZESTRON Americas

ZESTRON Americas

The globally leading provider of high precision cleaning products, services and training solutions in the electronics and semiconductor manufacturing industries.

Manassas, Virginia, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer, Training Provider

The Effect Of Vacuum Reflow Processing On Solder Joint Voiding And Thermal Fatigue Reliability

Apr 06, 2022 | Richard Coyle, Dave Hillman, Michael Barnes, David Heller, Charmaine Johnson, Richard Popowich, Richard Parker, Keith Howell, Joerg Trodler, Adam Murling

A test program was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of vacuum reflow processing on solder joint voiding and subsequent thermal cycling performance. Area array package test vehicles were assembled using conventional reflow processing and a solder paste that generated substantial void content in the solder joints. Half of the population of test vehicles then were re-processed (reflowed) using vacuum reflow. Transmission x-ray inspection showed a significant reduction in solder voiding after vacuum processing. The solder attachment reliability of the conventional and vacuum reflowed test vehicles was characterized and compared using two different accelerated thermal cycling profiles. The thermal cycling results are discussed in terms of the general impact of voiding on solder thermal fatigue reliability, results from the open literature, and the evolving industry standards for solder voiding. Recommendations are made for further work based on other void reduction methods and additional reliability studies.


Publisher: Nokia Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs

inspired by the past, energized by the future For nearly 100 years, we've been inventing the future of technology, from the early days of the Bell Telephone System to the latest 5G standards. We constantly improve, innovate and ..

Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Coating Thickness Measurement of Thin Gold and Palladium Coatings on Printed Circuit Boards using X-Ray Fluorescence

Mar 21, 2022 | Michael Haller, Volker Robiger, Simone Dill

The purpose of this paper is to compare the performance of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments with different detector systems (proportional counter, positive intrinsic negative and Si drift detectors) for measuring thin Au and Pd coatings on printed circuit boards and to investigate different ways of background treatment. It also aims to provide and certify suitable reference materials which are similar to samples used in production. Design/methodology/approach - XRF measurements were performed with different instruments and detector types. The quantification of the reference materials is based on XRF, gravimetric analysis and Rutherford backscattering (RBS). 


Publisher: Fischer Technology

Fischer Technology

Today, measurement and analysis instruments from FISCHER are used around the world in diverse sectors - wherever precision, reliability and easy operation are required. We find out how we can provide our customers with the best...

Windsor, Connecticut, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Analysis of Circuit Boards and Electrical Connectors for RoHS/WEEE Regulated Elements Using XRF

Mar 21, 2022 | John E. Martin, Lea L. Anderson‐Smith, Gloria Adjei‐Bekoe

Manufacturers and suppliers of electronic and electrical products to member states within the EU must comply with RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) and WEEE (Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment) regulations. Six materials are restricted under these directives: lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (Cr VI), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Maximum allowable concentrations of these materials are 1000ppm, with the exception of cadmium, which is restricted to a maximum of 100ppm....

Publisher: SPEX SamplePrep

SPEX SamplePrep

For over 65 years SPEX® SamplePrep has been the leading sample preparation solutions provider to analytical scientists worldwide. Our range of high performance and easy to use mill, grinders, homogenizers, presses and fusion flux

Metuchen, New Jersey, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Non-Destructive Characterization of Mechanically Processed Waste Printed Circuit Boards: X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

Mar 21, 2022 | Akira Otsuki, Pedro Pereira Gonçalves, Christian Stieghorst and Zsolt Révay

This work aimed to characterize the deportment/concentration and liberation/association of the metals and light elements within mechanically processed waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) that hold the complex and heterogeneous structure and distribution of different material components. Waste PCBs passed through a series of mechanical processing (i.e., comminution and sieving) for metal recovery and were then characterized without further destroying the particles in order to capture their heterogeneity. The characterizations were performed in a laboratory and large-scale neutron facility.


Publisher: Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie

Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie

The National School of Geology is the French Grande Ecole of reference in geosciences. Public school under the Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, it trains in 3 years engineers-geologists, experts in ...


Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Smart Determination of Gold Content in PCBs ofWaste Mobile Phones by Coupling of XRF and AAS Techniques

Mar 21, 2022 | Nicolò Maria Ippolito, Gianmaria Belardi, Valentina Innocenzi, Franco Medici , Loris Pietrelli and Luigi Piga

Quantitative determination of most economic valuable metals in waste is the first fundamental operation of evaluating the feasibility of recycling processes. Field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (FPXRFs) represent a more practical, efficient, and economic tool in determining the elemental composition of samples with respect to conventional analytical techniques, such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP). In this paper, quick and smart determination of gold content in printed circuit boards (PCBs) of waste mobile phones was studied. The aim of the research was to combine the practicality of FPXRFs with the reliability of quantitative spectrometry analysis and evaluate the error between the two techniques....

Publisher: University of L'Aquila

University of L'Aquila

The University of L'Aquila is a public research university located in L'Aquila, central Italy. It was founded in 1964 and is organized in nine departments. The university presents a scientific-technological character ...


Research Institute / Laboratory / School

XRF Technology In The Field - XRF Technology For Non-Scientists

Mar 21, 2022 | Thermo Fisher Scientific

X-ray fluorescence (XRF): a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the chemical composition of materials XRF occurs when a fluorescent (or secondary) X-ray is emitted from a sample that is being excited by a primary X-ray source. Because this fluorescence is unique to the elemental composition of the sample, XRF is an excellent technology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the material composition. XRF spectrometry has a broad range of applications in industry, which we will discuss later in this ebook....

Publisher: Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific is an American provisioner of scientific instrumentation, reagents and consumables, and software and services to healthcare, life science, and other laboratories in academia, government, and industry.

Sunnyvale, California, USA


Understanding Creep Corrosion Field Fails

Mar 16, 2022 | Phil Isaacs, Jing Zhang & Terry Munson

Dendrites, Electrochemical Migration (ECM) and parasitic leakage, are usually caused by process related contamination. For example, excess flux, poor handling, extraneous solder, fibers, to name a few. One does not normally relate these fails with environmental causes. However, creep corrosion is a mechanism by which electronic products fail in application, primarily related to sulfur pollution present in the air.1 The sulfur reacts with exposed silver, and to a lesser extent, exposed copper. This paper will explore various aspects of the creep corrosion chemical reaction...

Publisher: Foresite Inc.

Foresite Inc.

Foresite is a process consulting house and analytial laboratory dedicated to solving product reliability challenges for electronics manufacturers.

Kokomo, Indiana, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Creep Corrosion Of Electronic Assemblies In Harsh Environments

Mar 16, 2022 | Petri Savolainen and Randy Schueller

Creep corrosion occurs in electronics assemblies and it is reminiscent to electromigration but does not require electrical field to drive the reaction. Corrosive elements and moisture must be present for creep corrosion to occur. Sulfur is the most prominent element to cause creep corrosion in environments such as paper mills, rubber manufacturing, mining, cement manufacturing, waste water treatment etc., also including companies and locations nearby such industries. The main part of printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) to be affected is the PCB surface finish. Especially immersion silver is prone to creep corrosion, but it sometimes occurs in NiPd (lead frames), and to a lesser extent in ENIG and OSP surface finishes. As the use of immersion silver is increasing as PCB surface finish and electronics are more and more used in harsh environments, creep corrosion is a growing risk. In this paper we will present the driving forces and mechanisms as well as suitable tests and mitigation strategies against creep corrosion...

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

Creep Corrosion On Lead-Free Printed Circuit Boards In High Sulfur Environments

Mar 16, 2022 | Randy Schueller

The material and process changes required to eliminate lead from electronics as required by Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) legislation was likely to result in new quality and reliability issues. The industry had over 50 years experience with tin-lead solders. Changing to different solder alloys, fluxes, termination plating materials, PCB surface finishes and soldering temperatures in a span of 1-2 years was a high risk undertaking. Although many potential issues were uncovered and resolved, one new failure mechanism was not foreseen by the industry. Immersion silver (ImAg) was widely adopted to replace hot air solder level (HASL) as the surface finish on PCBs. ImAg was known to tarnish when exposed to sulfur, but it was a surprise to find that it suffers extensive creep corrosion when the sulfur and humidity levels are high enough. Failures can occur in as little as a few weeks in industries such as rubber manufacturing, water treatment, paper mills or fertilizer production, among others. This paper uncovers the root cause of the creep corrosion mechanism and shows how to eliminate it. Corrosive environments were measured and the results of field testing of various surface finishes in these environments is shared. Also presented are some more effective corrosion test methods currently under development....

Publisher: Dell Inc

Dell Inc

Dell is an American company that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services, and is owned by its parent company of Dell Technologies.

Round Rock, Texas, USA


A Wearable Medical Sensor for Provisional Healthcare

Mar 09, 2022 | Amir Javadpour and HamidrezaMemarzadeh-Tehran

This paper presents the design and realization of a context-aware wireless health monitoring system for recording the heartbeat (HR) and respiration (RR) rate based on an indirect measurement approach. The system consists of a contact-less medical sensor as well as a communication infrastructure for handling the transmission and reception of the measured results. The contact-less sensor includes a highly sensitive tri-axial accelerometer, an accurate temperature and air pressure sensor that enable one to inspect patients' health condition by continuously monitoring of two critical signs related to the cardiorespiratory system....

Publisher: University of Tehran

University of Tehran

The University of Tehran is the oldest modern university located in Tehran, Iran. Based on its historical, socio-cultural, and political pedigree, as well as its research and teaching profile, UT has been nicknamed "The Mother Uni

Tehran, Iran

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Utilising Commercially Fabricated Printed Circuit Boards as an Electrochemical Biosensing Platform

Mar 09, 2022 | Uroš Zupancic, Joshua Rainbow , Pedro Estrela and Despina Moschou

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) offer a promising platform for the development of electronicsassisted biomedical diagnostic sensors and microsystems. The long-standing industrial basis offers distinctive advantages for cost-effective, reproducible, and easily integrated sample-in-answer-out diagnostic microsystems. Nonetheless, the commercial techniques used in the fabrication of PCBs produce various contaminants potentially degrading severely their stability and repeatability in electrochemical sensing applications. Herein, we analyse for the first time such critical technological considerations, allowing the exploitation of commercial PCB platforms as reliable electrochemical sensing platforms....

Publisher: University of Bath

University of Bath

The University of Bath is a public research university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report.

Bath, United Kingdom

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Evolution of Wearable Devices with Real-Time Disease Monitoring for Personalized Healthcare

Mar 09, 2022 | Kyeonghye Guk, Gaon Han, Jaewoo Lim, Keunwon Jeong, Taejoon Kang, Eun-Kyung Lim, and Juyeon Jung

Wearable devices are becoming widespread in a wide range of applications, from healthcare to biomedical monitoring systems, which enable continuous measurement of critical biomarkers for medical diagnostics, physiological health monitoring and evaluation. Especially as the elderly population grows globally, various chronic and acute diseases become increasingly important, and the medical industry is changing dramatically due to the need for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis and real-time monitoring of long-term health conditions....

Publisher: Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology

Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology

Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology is a government research institute in Daejeon, South Korea.

Daejeon, South Korea

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Smart Sensors for Healthcare and Medical Applications

Mar 09, 2022 | Domenico Formica and Emiliano Schena

This special issue on "Smart Sensors for Healthcare and Medical Applications" focuses on new sensing technologies, measurement techniques, and their applications in medicine and healthcare. We proposed this topic, being aware of the pivotal role that smart sensors can play for the improvement of healthcare services in both acute and chronic conditions as well as for prevention towards a healthy life and active aging. In this editorial we shortly describe the potential of smart sensors in the aforementioned applications, before moving on providing a general overview of the 24 articles selected and published in this special issue....

Publisher: Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma

Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma

Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma is a for-profit college situated in Trigoria, founded in 1993 and promoted by the Beatus Alvaro del Portillo, according to the principles of the Catholic prelature of the Opus Dei.

Roma RM, Italy

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Study on Medical Sensors

Mar 09, 2022 | Nadine Boudargham, Jacques Bou Abdo, Jacques Demerjian, and Christophe Guyeux

The advances in electronics allowed the development of smart miniature devices called medical sensors, that can collect physiological data from the human body and its surrounding and send it wirelessly to healthcare providers in order to help avoiding life threatening events. This article presents a general overview on the types of medical sensors, their properties, and the wireless technologies used to convey collected data. Also, this article is the first to provide a summary about the wearable sensors' brands available in the market, along with their interface and connection types....

Publisher: University of Notre Dame

University of Notre Dame

One of America's leading undergraduate teaching institutions, Notre Dame also has been at the forefront in research and scholarship. The aerodynamics of glider flight, the transmission of wireless messages, and research

Notre Dame, Indiana, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

The Effects of Long-Term Storage on Solderability of Semiconductor Components

Mar 02, 2022 | Rochester Electronics LLC

In today's consumer-driven electronic marketplace many products have a limited useful life and component suppliers are moving to shorter product lifecycles. However, there are several industries that require semiconductor components to have a much longer lifecycle. In many cases application lifecycles within the Industrial, Automotive, Medical, Aerospace and Defense sectors may extend up to 30 years or more. As a result, an ongoing component supply becomes critical to sustaining these applications throughout their useful lifecycle. For this reason, it is often a requirement that semiconductor components be stored for extended periods of time after production ends....

Publisher: Rochester Electronics LLC

Rochester Electronics LLC

Rochester Electronics is the world's largest continuous source of semiconductors–100% Authorized by over 70 leading semiconductor manufacturers. As an original manufacturer stocking distributor, Rochester has over 15 billion ...

Newburyport, Massachusetts, USA


Effects Of Storage Environments On The Solderability Of Nickel Palladium- Gold Finish With Pb-Based And Pb- Free Solders

Mar 02, 2022 | Edwin Lopez, Paul Vianco, Samuel Lucero, and Carly George

The solderability of a nickel-palladium-gold (Ni-Pd-Au) finish on a Cu substrate was evaluated for the Pb-free solder, 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6 Cu (wt.%, abbreviated Sn-Ag-Cu) and the eutectic 63Sn-37 Pb (Sn-Pb) alloy. The solder temperature was 245ºC. The flux was a rosin-based mildly activated (RMA) solution. The Ni-Pd-Au finish was tested in the as-fabricated condition as well as after exposure to one of the following accelerated storage (shelf life) regiments: (1) 33.6, 67.2, or 336 hours in the Battelle Class 2 flowing gas environment or (2) 5, 16, or 24 hours of steam aging (88ºC, 90%RH)....

Publisher: Sandia National Laboratories

Sandia National Laboratories

For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.

Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA


Solderability after Long-Term Storage

Mar 02, 2022 | Joelle Arnold, Cheryl Tulkoff and Greg Caswell

The effect of long-term storage on manufacturability and reliability is an area of major concern for companies that attempt to proactively manage component availability and obsolescence. A number of issues can arise depending on the technology and storage environment. Mechanisms of concern can include solderability, stress driven diffusive voiding, kirkendahl voiding, and tin whiskering. Of all of these, solderability / wettability remains the number one challenge in longterm storage....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

Considerations for Minimizing Radiation Doses to Components during X-ray Inspection

Feb 21, 2022 | David Bernard, Richard C. Blish, II

The ability to undertake non-destructive testing on semiconductor devices, during both their manufacture and their subsequent use in printed circuit boards (PCBs), has become ever more important for checking product quality without compromising productivity. The use of x-ray inspection not only provides a potentially non-destructive test but also allows investigation within optically hidden areas, such as the wire bonding within packages and the quality of post solder reflow of area array devices (e.g. BGAs, CSPs and flip chips)....

Publisher: Nordson DAGE

Nordson DAGE

The leading provider of award winning bond testing equipment and continues to invest significantly in research and development to remain at the cutting edge of bond tester technology.

Aylesbury. Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Cleaning PCBs in Electronics: Understanding Today's Needs

Feb 16, 2022 | P.J.Duchi, Anne-Marie Laügt, Marie Verdier, G.Abidh

Because of the phase-out of CFCs and HCFCs, standard solder pastes and fluxes evolved from RA and RMA fluxes to No-Clean, to low residue No-Clean, to very low residue No-Clean. Many companies came out with their cleaning solutions, aqueous and semi-aqueous, with each product release being more innovative than the previous one. Unfortunately for most of the suppliers of cleaners, two other trends appeared; lead-free soldering and the progressive miniaturization of electronic devices...

Publisher: Inventec Performance Chemicals

Inventec Performance Chemicals

Innovative Soldering, Cleaning & Coating materials for high-tech industries. Matching performance with sustainability.

Bry-sur-Marne, France


The importance of pollutant capturing when utilizing fume extraction technology

Feb 16, 2022 | ULT

During the last couple of years, utilization of extraction and filtration systems has become standard in many manufacturing companies, in craft businesses as well as in laboratory and research facilities. Fume extraction systems clean the process air, but they should be applied in a targeted manner so that the best filtration performance can be guaranteed. Everything stands and falls with pollutant capturing, as only maximum particle capture will lead to maximum separation performance....

Publisher: ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT is a vendor of efficient fume extraction solutions for air purification. The company's systems are utilized for the removal of laser fumes, soldering fumes, odors, vapors, gases, dusts etc. in electronics production.

Okotoks, Alberta, Canada

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Additively Manufactured mm-Wave Multichip Modules With Fully Printed "Smart" Encapsulation Structures

Feb 09, 2022 | Xuanke He, Bijan K. Tehrani, Ryan Bahr, Wenjing Su, and Manos M. Tentzeris

This article presents the first time that an millimeter-wave (mm-wave) multichip module (MCM) with on-demand "smart" encapsulation has been fabricated utilizing additive manufacturing technologies. RF and dc interconnects were fabricated using inkjet printing, while the encapsulation was realized using 3-D printing. Inkjet-printed interconnects feature superior RF performance, better mechanical reliability, and on-demand, low-cost fabrication process....

Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology

Georgia Institute of Technology

Center for Board Assembly Research CBAR- advanced research on board assembly processes and systems

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Open Radio Unit White Box 5G

Jan 28, 2022 | Whizz Systems

This white paper provides an overview of the design and development process for the various hardware components that make up the 5G ORU white box. Whizz Systems is responsible for the electrical, thermal, mechanical engineering, and manufacturing aspects, as well as system validation and bring up of the turn key white box ORU solution....

Publisher: Whizz Systems

Whizz Systems

Formed in 1989 as an advanced engineering and high mix low volume EMS services provider.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

An Experimental Investigation of Fracture Toughness and Volume Resistivity of Symmetric Laminated Epoxy/ Glass Fiber/CNT multiscale composites

Jan 26, 2022 | Mahadevan Lakshmanan Karingamanna Jayanarayanan, Joyal Joesph

In this work an attempt is made to improve the fracture toughness and electrical conductivity of epoxy/glass fiber based laminates by the inclusion of carbon nanotube (CNT) fillers. The fiber orientation of the epoxy/ glass fiber (GF) fabric laminates was optimized based on estimation of mechanical properties. The carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs were incorporated into epoxy matrix by ultra-sonication method. The nano filled epoxy resin was used to prepare laminates with 30/45 GF fabric orientation. The CNT content was varied and its effect on the tensile properties was determined. The fracture toughness of multiphase composites was estimated using single edge notch bend (SENB) test. The presence of CNTs improved the fracture toughness by a crack bridging mechanism. The volume resistivity of multiphase composites was found to be superior to the conventional epoxy/CNT composite. The presence of glass fabric reduces the number of inter-tube contacts contributing to the reduction in volume resistivity....

Publisher: Amrita University

Amrita University

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham is a multi-campus, multi-disciplinary research academia that is accredited 'A++' by NAAC and is ranked as one of the best research institutions in India.

Tamil Nadu, India

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Adhesion and Puncture Strength of Polyurethane Coating Used to Mitigate Tin Whisker Growth

Jan 26, 2022 | Kenny Mahan, Yong Sun, Bongtae Han1, Sungwon Han, Mike Osterman

Reliability of conformal coatings used to mitigate tin whisker growth depends on their ability to contain tin whiskers. Two key material properties required to assess the reliability of a polyurethane coating are documented experimentally: adhesion strength and puncture strength. A modified blister test using a predefined blister area is employed to assess the adhesion strength and a puncture test is employed to evaluate the puncture strength of the coating. After measuring the properties at time zero, the coatings are subjected to accelerated testing conditions (high temperature/humidity storage and temperature cycling) and the degradations of the coating properties are documented....

Publisher: CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

The largest electronic products research center focused on electronics reliability, is dedicated to providing a knowledge and resource base to support the development of competitive electronic components, products and systems.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Training Provider

An Electrochemical Sensor for Determination of Sulfite (SO32-) in Water Based on Molybdenum Disulfide Flakes/Nafion Modified Electrode

Jan 19, 2022 | Jie Yang, Xiangyu Xu, Xuyan Mao, Liang Jiang, Xueliang Wang

The assay for monitoring the content of sulfite ions (SO32−) is essentially important because sulfite has some seriously toxic effects on both environment and human health. For this, a SO32- electrochemical sensor was fabricated utilizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and Nafion. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) showed that MoS2 had excellently catalytical activity for the redox of SO32-....

Publisher: Jining Medical University

Jining Medical University

Jining Medical University, is a public institution of higher learning in Jining and Rizhao, Shandong province, China

Jining City, Shandong Province, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Non‑Invasive Monitoring Of Ph And Oxygen Using Miniaturized Electrochemical Sensors In An Animal Model Of Acute Hypoxia

Jan 19, 2022 | Laura Pla, Sergio Berdún, Mònica Mir, Lourders Rivas, Sandrine Miserere, Samuel Dulay, Josep Samitier, Elisenda Eixarch, Miriam Illa, and Eduard Gratacós

pH and oxygen electrochemical sensors were evaluated in a ventilatory hypoxia rabbit model. The ventilator hypoxia protocol included 3 differential phases: basal (100% FiO2), the hypoxia-acidosis period (10% FiO2) and recovery (100% FiO2). Sensors were tested in blood tissue (ex vivo sensing) and in muscular tissue (in vivo sensing). pH electrochemical and oxygen sensors were evaluated on the day of insertion (short-term evaluation) and pH electrochemical sensors were also tested after 5 days of insertion (long-term evaluation). pH and oxygen sensing were registered throughout the ventilatory hypoxia protocol (basal, hypoxia-acidosis, and recovery) and were compared with blood gas metabolites results from carotid artery catheterization (obtained with the EPOC blood analyzer)....

Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona

Universitat de Barcelona

University of Barcelona is a public university located in the city of Barcelona, Catalonia in Spain. With 63,000 students, it is one of the biggest universities in Spain. It is one of the oldest universities in Catalonia, establis

Barcelona, Spain

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Electrochemical Sensors

Jan 19, 2022 | Neelansh Sharma, Vishal Mutreja, Hardeep Kaur

Electrochemical sensors are a class of sensors in which the transducer component is the electrode. These methods are presently utilized in a wide assortment of business applications. These sensors are significant for some factors: the utilization of the electron for signal obtaining, which is known to be a perfect model for logical applications, without squander age; scaling down in versatile gadgets (test microvolume investigation); quick examination; and minimal effort of creation, permitting these techniques to be promoted (for example as business glucose sensors)....

Publisher: Chandigarh University

Chandigarh University

Chandigarh University, Punjab [CU] is the Best University in Punjab and North India that offers various Undergraduate and Post graduate Courses

Punjab, India

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

A Flexible Front-End for Wearable Electrochemical Sensing

Jan 19, 2022 | Ivan Ny Hanitra, Lucia Lobello, Francesca Stradolini, Abuduwaili Tuoheti, Francesca Criscuolo, Tugba Kilic, Danilo Demarchi, Sandro Carrara and Giovanni De Micheli

This work presents the design and the realization of a flexible front-end circuitry for electrochemical sensing with wearable devices. The hardware combines readout circuitry for amperometric and Open Circuit Potential (OCP) measurements. The sensing platforms are dedicated to lactate and lithium detection in sweat, hence allowing the monitoring of athletes under physical effort....

Publisher: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne - Integrated Systems Laboratory (Laboratoire des Systèmes Intégrés – LSI)

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne - Integrated Systems Laboratory (Laboratoire des Systèmes Intégrés – LSI)

LSI studies design technologies for circuits and systems. The objective is to research the interplay of hardware and software design for traditional (computation on silicon) and non-traditional (nanotechnology and biosensors)

Lausanne, Switzerland

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Global LiDAR Sensors Market Growth to Gain Traction by a CAGR of ~12%

Jan 18, 2022 | Ataurrahaman

Research Nester published a report titled "LiDAR Sensors Market: Global Demand Analysis & Opportunity Outlook 2031" which delivers detailed overview of theglobalLiDAR sensors market in terms of market segmentation by type, technology, application, and by region....

Publisher: Research Nester

Research Nester

Research Nester is a one-stop service provider, leading in strategic market research and consulting with an unbiased and unparalleled approach towards helping global industrial players.

New York, New York, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

Using Blockchain in Autonomous Vehicles

Jan 12, 2022 | Nidhee Kamble, Ritu Gala, Revathi Vijayaraghavan, Eshita Shukla, Dhiren Patel

Autonomous vehicles have the potential to revolutionize the automotive industry and are gaining immense attention from academia as well as industry. However, facets of autonomous vehicle systems related to the interconnection of independent components pose vulnerabilities to the system as a whole. These vulnerabilities aren't guaranteed to be solved by traditional security methods. Blockchain technology is a powerful tool that can aid in improving trust and reliability in such systems....

Publisher: Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute

Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute

VJTI Mumbai has pioneered India's Engineering education, research and training ecosystem. Pre-independence, VJTI had been instrumental in driving industrial growth throughout united India.

Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Governing Autonomous Vehicles: Emerging Responses For Safety, Liability, Privacy, Cybersecurity, And Industry Risks

Jan 12, 2022 | Araz Taeihagh and Hazel Si Min Lim

The benefits of autonomous vehicles (AVs) are widely acknowledged, but there are concerns about the extent of these benefits and AV risks and unintended consequences. In this article, we first examine AVs and different categories of the technological risks associated with them. We then explore strategies that can be adopted to address these risks, and explore emerging responses by governments for addressing AV risks....

Publisher: National University of Singapore

National University of Singapore

The National University of Singapore is a national research university based in Singapore. Founded in 1905 as the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States Government Medical School, NUS is the oldest autonomous university...

Singapore, Singapore

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Coordinating Hundreds of Cooperative, Autonomous Vehicles in Warehouses

Jan 12, 2022 | Peter R. Wurman, Raffaello D'Andrea, and Mick Mountz

Occasionally, mature industries are turned upside down by innovations. The years of research on robotics and multiagent systems are coming together to provide just such a disruption to the material-handling industry. While autonomous guided vehicles (AGVs) have been used to move material within warehouses since the 1950s, they have been used primarily to transport very large, very heavy objects like rolls of uncut paper or engine blocks....

Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence

Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence is an international scientific society devoted to promote research in, and responsible use of, artificial intelligence.

Palo Alto, California, USA

Association / Non-Profit

Printed Circuit Board Recycling: Physicochemical And Economic Analysis Of Metals

Jan 05, 2022 | Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas, Monica Maria Jiménez Correa, Flávia Paulucci Cianga Silvas, Viviane Tavares de Moraes, Jorge Alberto Soares Tenório, Denise Crocce Romano Espinosa

This study aims to present the characterization of five different types of printed circuit boards (PCBs) for use in future recycling processes. PCBs used: motherboards, lead free motherboards, video cards, memory and printer cards. The comminution of the circuit boards was performed using blade mills and hammer mills with 9mm and 6mm meshes, respectively. Throughout the physical processing, analysis was made with stereoscopic optics to ensure that the correct materials had been released. The pre-magnetic separation parts were given a granulometric classification followed by acid digestion and loss on ignition tests....

Publisher: Universidade de São Paulo

Universidade de São Paulo

University of São Paulo is a public university in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. It ihe largest Brazilian public university and the country's most prestigious educational institution, the best university in Ibero-America,

São Paulo - State of São Paulo, Brazil

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Recycling of Non-metallic Residue from Waste Printed Circuit Boards to Produce Interlocking Concrete Blocks

Jan 05, 2022 | Sawitri Pianchaiyaphum, Suphaphat Kwonpongsagoon, Premrudee Kanchanapiya, and Chakrapan Tuakta

The process of copper recovery from waste printed circuit board has generated large amounts of non-metallic fraction (NMF) residue. In this research, the residue was recycled as a substitute for fine aggregates at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% to produce interlocking concrete blocks. Properties of the interlocking concrete blocks produced in this study, such as density, water absorption, compressive strength, were firstly examined and the selected mixes were further evaluated for the heavy metal leachability....

Publisher: Mahidol University

Mahidol University

Mahidol University (Mahidol), an autonomous research institution in Thailand, had its origin in the establishment of Siriraj Hospital in 1888. Mahidol had an acceptance rate for Medicine of 0.4% as of the 2016 academic year.

Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Assessment of Pre-Treatment Techniques for Coarse Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) Recycling

Jan 05, 2022 | Kai Dean Kang, I. M. Saman K. Ilankoon, Nimila Dushyantha and Meng Nan Chong

Waste electrical and electronic equipment or e-waste generation has been skyrocketing over the last decades. This poses waste management and value recovery challenges, especially in developing countries. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are mainly employed in value recovery operations. Despite the high energy costs of generating crushed and milled particles of the order of several microns, those are employed in conventional hydrometallurgical techniques. Coarse PCB pieces (of order a few centimetres) based value recovery operations are not reported at the industrial scale as the complexities of the internal structure of PCBs limit efficient metal and non-metal separation....

Publisher: Monash University

Monash University

Monash University Malaysia, the Malaysian campus of Monash University opened in 1998 and is located within the Bandar Sunway township in Malaysia. It is the first foreign university in Malaysia.

Selangor, Malaysia

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Recycling Waste Circuit Board Efficiently and Environmentally Friendly through Small-Molecule Assisted Dissolution

Jan 05, 2022 | Zhiqiang Chen, Meng Yang, Qian Shi, Xiao Kuang, H. Jerry Qi & Tiejun Wang

With the increasing amount of electronic waste (e-waste) generated globally, it is an enormous challenge to recycle printed circuit boards (PCBs) efficiently and environmentally friendly. However, conventional recycling technologies have low efficiency and require tough treatment such as high temperature (>200 °C) and high pressure. In this paper, a small-molecule assisted approach based on dynamic reaction was proposed to dissolve thermosetting polymers containing ester groups and recycle electronic components from PCBs....

Publisher: Xian Jiaotong University

Xian Jiaotong University

Xi'an Jiaotong University is a C9 League university with strengths in engineering, technology, management, and life sciences located in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class Univ.

Xi'an, Shaanxi, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

per page.

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

IPC Certification Training Schedule IPC Questions and answers

Flux-Free Reflow Soldering