Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles
Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.
- Technical Library
1368 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles
Feb 19, 2022 | Everybody
We all want to know: WTF? I mean really. WTAF. Are they for real? Is this really happening now?...
Publisher: McTestCo, Inc.
Nov 29, 2021 | Test me
Physics of Failure (PoF) Based Lifetime Prediction of Power Electronics at the Printed Circuit Board Level
Sep 15, 2021 | Andrew Wileman, Suresh Perinpanayagam and Sohaib Aslam
This paper presents the use of physics of failure (PoF) methodology to infer fast and accurate lifetime predictions for power electronics at the printed circuit board (PCB) level in early design stages. It is shown that the ability to accurately model silicon–metal layers, semiconductor packaging, printed circuit boards (PCBs), and assemblies allows, for instance, the prediction of solder fatigue failure due to thermal, mechanical, and manufacturing conditions. The technique allows a lifecycle prognosis of the PCB, taking into account the environmental stresses it will encounter during the period of operation. Primarily, it involves converting an electronic computer aided design (eCAD) circuit layout into computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA) models with accurate geometries. From this, stressors, such as thermal cycling, mechanical shock, natural frequency, and harmonic and random vibrations, are applied to understand PCB degradation, and semiconductor and capacitor wear, and accordingly provide a method for high-fidelity power PCB modelling, which can be subsequently used to facilitate virtual testing and digital twinning for aircraft systems and sub-systems....
Publisher: Cranfield University
Sep 15, 2021 | I.I. Kovtun, J.M. Boiko, S.A. Petrashchuk
Mathematical model for dynamic force analysis of printed circuit boards has been designed to calculate dynamic deformations and stresses in printed circuit boards and assess their dynamic strength and rigidity. The represented model describes a printed circuit board as a separate oscillatory system, which is simulated as prismatic beam set on two oscillating supports. Simulation and assessment of stress and deflection in printed circuit boards and obtaining their amplitude frequency responses provided recommendations, which ensure strength and stiffness of printed circuit boards subjected to dynamic loads.....
Publisher: Khmelnytsky National University
Established in 1962, Khmelnytskyi National University is a non-profit public higher-education institution located in the urban setting of the medium city of Khmelnitsky (population range of 250,000-499,999 inhabitants), Khmelnytsk
Khmelnytskyi Oblast, Ukraine
Sep 15, 2021 | Gert Vogel
Many printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) have relays that are soldered to the PCB. If such an electromechanical component fails, it can cause the whole device to fail, just like any other electronic component. The spectrum of root causes that lead to an increased contact resistance or a complete contact failure is totally different from what usually occurs in the electronics domain. This article provides a detailed analysis of these failures and the corresponding root causes, many of them self-centering....
Publisher: Siemens Process Industries and Drives
Siemens industrial manufacturing software, process automation, and automation and drives technology increases flexibility, cuts market launch lead time, and significantly reduces energy for manufacturing companies.
Alpharetta, Georgia, USA
Sep 15, 2021 | ASM International®
Analyzing failures is a critical process in determining the physical root causes of problems. The process is complex, draws upon many different technical disciplines, and uses a variety of observation, inspection, and laboratory techniques. One of the key factors in properly performing a failure analysis is keeping an open mind while examining and analyzing the evidence to foster a clear, unbiased perspective of the failure....
Publisher: ASM International
Sep 09, 2021 | pti
Auto Electronic ICT+ Programming Automation Solution...
Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD
The Great SAC Debate: Comparing The Reliability Of SAC305 And SAC405 Solders In A Variety Of Applications
Sep 08, 2021 | Heather McCormick, Polina Snugovsky, Craig Hamilton, Zohreh Bagheri, and Simin Bagheri
Although the electronics industry has largely settled on the use of SAC alloys for the assembly of the majority of lead free products, debate continues to exist over which SAC alloy – SAC305 (Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu) or SAC405 (Sn3.8Ag0.8Cu) – to use. The North American industry generally favours SAC405, while the Asian industry favours SAC305. SAC305 has the significant benefit of being less expensive than SAC405 owing to its lower silver content. However, there are lingering questions about whether the reliability of SAC305 is comparable to that of SAC405. Recent studies have concluded that no significant difference exists, but many potential applications were not studied. This paper compares the results of reliability testing of SAC305 and SAC405 in three different cases on a test vehicle representative of a mid-complexity server-type product which included a range of component types from CBGAs to discrete resistors....
Publisher: Celestica Corporation
iNEMI Pb-Free Alloy Characterization Project Report: Part II - Thermal Fatigue Results For Two Common Temperature Cycles
Sep 08, 2021 | Richard Parker, Richard Coyle, Gregory Henshall, Joe Smetana, Elizabeth Benedetto
The Pb-Free Alloy Characterization Program sponsored by International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI) is conducting an extensive investigation using accelerated temperature cycling (ATC) to evaluate ball grid array (BGA) thermal fatigue performance of 12 commercial or developmental Sn based Pb-free solder alloys. This paper presents the initial findings from a specific subset of the temperature cycling test matrix. The focus is on comparing alloy performance for two of the most commonly specified temperature cycles, 0 to 100 °C and -40 to 125 °C....
iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.
Herndon, Virginia, USA
Sep 08, 2021 | Ranjit Pandher, Tom Lawlor
There is need in the industry to understand the effects of silver presence in solders from various applications perspective. This article will attempt to present a review of the key published results on the silver containing alloys along with results of our internal studies on wave soldering, surface mount and BGA/CSP applications. Advantages and disadvantages of silver at different levels will be discussed. Specifically this report will focus on the effect of silver on process conditions, drop shock resistance, solder joint survivability in high strain rate situations, thermal fatigue resistance, Cu dissolution and effects of silver in combination with other alloy additives. Specific application problems demanding high silver level and other requiring silver level to the minimum will be discussed....
Publisher: Cookson Electronics
Sep 08, 2021 | Michael Osterman
While the presence of silver in SAC solder provided excellent temperature cycling durability, the silver in high silver SAC alloy also made the solders susceptible to failures under drop/shock loading. To improve the drop/shock reliability, the silver content in SAC alloys was reduced from three percent, to as low as no silver. Solder dopants, also known as microalloy additions, are elements (typically 0.1% or lower) other than the main constituents of the alloy that have been shown to improve solder performance. Commonly used microalloy additions include nickel (Ni), bismuth (Bi), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb)....
The largest electronic products research center focused on electronics reliability, is dedicated to providing a knowledge and resource base to support the development of competitive electronic components, products and systems.
College Park, Maryland, USA
Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Mn-Alloyed Tin-Silver-Copper Solder Solidified with Different Cooling Rates
Sep 08, 2021 | Tamás Hurtony, Oliver Krammer, Balázs Illés, Gábor Harsányi, David Bušek and Karel Dušek
Manganese can be an optimal alloying addition in lead-free SAC (SnAgCu) solder alloys because of its low price and harmless nature. In this research, the mechanical properties of the novel SAC0307 (Sn/Ag0.3/Cu0.7) alloyed with 0.7 wt.% Mn (designated as SAC0307-Mn07) and those of the traditionally used SAC305 (Sn96.5/Ag3/Cu0.5) solder alloys were investigated by analyzing the shear force and Vickers hardness of reflowed solder balls. During the preparation of the reflowed solder balls, different cooling rates were used in the range from 2.7 K/s to 14.7 K/s....
Sep 07, 2021 | Utsource
Utsource grows from a child to an adult serving the global 30W + customers. UTSOURCE.net is a professional purchasing B2B & B2C tools in electronic components field. UTSOURCE.net provides different types such as IC, Modules, RF transistors etc., and various product type's PDF parameter form as well as the related photographs, we also provide satisfying one-stop package service for customers. We fell honored to serve the global 30W + customers.We spent 15 years touching the needs of customers from all over the world.So we know better that our customers need their packages to arrive safely.After-sales service need at your fingertips and intimate service should be to customers' satisfaction...
Sep 02, 2021 | Winsmart
We are a professional manufacturer of PCB depaneling machines, which is workable for all boards, including flex and regid boards, v-scored boards and routed boards. Laser pcb depaneling is non-contact way without mechanical stress,this solution is good for modern precision PCB depaneling. It has below advantages: 1. No dust The production environment of the circuit board industry is carried out in the dust-free workshop. The traditional pcb depaneling equipment, such as blade moving type machine, will inevitably produce residues and micro powder, which will pollute the 10000 and 1000 class dust-free workshops and affect the conductivity of products. The UV laser PCB cutting machine is a vaporization processing process, which will not produce dust and is conducive to the conductivity of the product. 2. High cutting precision The processing gap of high-precision traditional processing equipment can not reach the gap width of less than 100 microns, which will cause certain damage to the lines on the edge or PCBA circuit board containing components. The focus spot of the laser cutting machine is small, and the ultraviolet cold processing mode has little thermal impact on the edge of the circuit board. The cutting position accuracy is less than 50 microns, and the cutting size accuracy is less than 30 microns, which will not affect the edge of the circuit board, and the precision is high. 3. No stress Traditional processing methods generally have V-grooves, which will cause certain damage to the board in the manufacturing process. The UV laser PCB cutting machine can directly cut the bare board without making V-grooves. In addition, the traditional processing methods directly use tools to act on the circuit board, especially the stamping method has a great impact on the circuit board, which is easy to cause board deformation. The laser cutting machine is a non-contact processing mode, which acts on the surface of the material through the high-energy beam, which will not cause the influence of stress and the deformation and damage of the circuit board. 4. For special-shaped cutting, it is easy to automate The UV laser PCB cutting machine can cut for any shape without replacing any props and fixtures, and without steel mesh. The same equipment can meet special-shaped and straight-line cutting, which is easy to realize assembly line automatic production and high flexibility. It is easy to improve production efficiency and save production process and production cycle. In particular, it can quickly and efficiently meet the needs of rapid proofing, directly import the drawing, and then locate the cutting. 5. High compatibility The UV laser PCB cutting machine can process the materials around the circuit board, such as PCB, FPC, covering film, pet, reinforcing board, IC, ultra-thin metal cutting, etc. it has strong practicability, is compatible with the processing of a variety of materials, is easy to operate, can be imported into the drawing, does not need to adjust any mechanical parts, and is easy to operate and maintain. 6. Good cutting edge effect The cutting edge is smooth and neat without burr. It can be processed and formed directly according to the size of the drawing, which is conducive to improving the yield of the product. It can be directly installed into the subsequent process without further processing. For more details about UV laser depaneling, please feel free to contact us. www.pcbdepanelingrouter.com...
Publisher: Winsmart Electronic Co.,Ltd
Tombstoning Of 0402 And 0201 Components: "A Study Examining The Effects Of Various Process And Design Parameters On Ultra-Small Passive Devices"
Sep 01, 2021 | Michael Yuen, Heather Benedict, Kris Havlovitz, Tim Pitsch, Andy C. Mackie
The long-standing trend in the electronics industry has been the miniaturization of electronic components. It is projected that this trend will continue as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) providers strive to reduce "real estate" on printed circuit boards. Typically, the miniaturization of components can be achieved by integration or size reduction. At present, size reduction is considered to be more cost effective and flexible than integration. Passive components, which are used in limiting current, terminating transmission lines and de-coupling switching noise, are the primary focus in size reduction due to their variety of uses....
Publisher: Plexus Corporation
Are you ready to experience the difference? Plexus Corp provides comprehensive product development and manufacturing services to Fortune 500 companies in the medical, networking/datacom, high-end computing, industrial and commercial electronics indus
Neenah, Wisconsin, USA