Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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1432 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Technology for Electrochemical Sensors and Sensing Platforms

Feb 17, 2021 | Hamed Shamkhalichenar, Collin J. Bueche and Jin-Woo Choi

The development of various biosensors has revolutionized the healthcare industry by providing rapid and reliable detection capability. Printed circuit board (PCB) technology has a well-established industry widely available around the world. In addition to electronics, this technology has been utilized to fabricate electrical parts, including electrodes for different biological and chemical sensors. High reproducibility achieved through long-lasting standard processes and low-cost resulting from an abundance of competitive manufacturing services makes this fabrication method a prime candidate for patterning electrodes and electrical parts of biosensors. The adoption of this approach in the fabrication of sensing platforms facilitates the integration of electronics and microfluidics with biosensors. In this review paper, the underlying principles and advances of printed board circuit technology are discussed. In addition, an overview of recent advancements in the development of PCB-based biosensors is provided. Finally, the challenges and outlook of PCB-based sensors are elaborated. doi:10.3390/bios10110159...

Publisher: Louisiana State University

Louisiana State University

LSU is the flagship university for Louisiana, supporting land, sea and space grant research.

Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions - Implications for Transport Planning

Feb 11, 2021 | Todd Litman

This report explores the impacts of autonomous (also called self-driving, driverless or robotic) vehicles, and their implications for transportation planning. It investigates how quickly such vehicles are likely to develop and be deployed based on experience with previous vehicle technologies; their likely benefits and ......

Publisher: Victoria Transport Policy Institute

Victoria Transport Policy Institute

The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative and practical solutions to transportation problems. We provide a variety of resources available free at this ...

Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

2020 AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

Feb 11, 2021 | How this report came to be: a collaborative effort - Bram Geenen Editor-In-Chief

Motorized transportation has changed the way we live. Autonomous vehicles are about to do so once more. This evolution of our transport - from horses and carriages, to cars, to driverless vehicles, - has been driven by both technical innovation and socioeconomic factors. In this report we focus on the technological aspect....

Publisher: Wevolver

Wevolver

At Wevolver we want to empower people to create and innovate by providing access to engineering knowledge. Humans need innovation to survive and thrive. Developing relevant technologies and creating the best possible solutions ...

Chorley, United Kingdom

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

2020 AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

Feb 11, 2021 | How this report came to be: a collaborative effort - Bram Geenen Editor-In-Chief

Motorized transportation has changed the way we live. Autonomous vehicles are about to do so once more. This evolution of our transport - from horses and carriages, to cars, to driverless vehicles, - has been driven by both technical innovation and socioeconomic factors. In this report we focus on the technological aspect....

Publisher: Wevolver

Wevolver

At Wevolver we want to empower people to create and innovate by providing access to engineering knowledge. Humans need innovation to survive and thrive. Developing relevant technologies and creating the best possible solutions ...

Chorley, United Kingdom

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Recycling Waste Circuit Board Efficiently and Environmentally Friendly through Small-Molecule Assisted Dissolution

Feb 04, 2021 | Zhiqiang Chen, Meng Yang, Qian Shi, Xiao Kuang, H. Jerry Qi & Tiejun Wang

With the increasing amount of electronic waste (e-waste) generated globally, it is an enormous challenge to recycle printed circuit boards (PCBs) efficiently and environmentally friendly. However, conventional recycling technologies have low efficiency and require tough treatment such as high temperature (>200 °C) and high pressure. ... doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54045-w....

Publisher: National Natural Science Foundation of China

National Natural Science Foundation of China

The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) was established on February 14, 1986. Upon its establishment, NSFC was an institution directly under the jurisdiction of the State Council, tasked with the administration ...

Beijing, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Closed‑Loop Recycling of Copper from Waste Printed Circuit Boards Using Bioleaching and Electrowinning Processes

Feb 04, 2021 | Mahsa Baniasadi· John E. Graves · Daniel A. Ray5 · Angélique Lindamulage De Silva · Derek Renshaw · Sebastien Farnaud

In the present study, a model of closed-loop recycling of copper from PCBs is demonstrated, which involves the sequential application of bioleaching and electrowinning to selectively extract copper. This approach is proposed as part of the solution to resolve the challenging ... doi.org/10.1007/s12649-020-01128-9...

Publisher: Waste and Biomass Valorization

Waste and Biomass Valorization

Springer Publishing is an award-winning publisher of healthcare and behavioral sciences content, featuring books, apps, journals, and digital products. With an acute understanding of how educators teach, how practitioners work ...

6330 Cham, Switzerland

Media / Publisher / Online Resource

Extreme Long Term Printed Circuit Board Surface Finish Solderability Assessment

Jan 28, 2021 | Gerard O'Brien, Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc., Richmond, KY Dave Hillman, Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, IA

Printed circuit board surface finishes are a topic of constant discussion as environmental influences, such as the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive or technology challenges, such as flip chip and 01005 passive components, initiate technology changes. These factors drive the need for greater control of processing characteristics like coplanarity and solderability, which influence the selection of surface finishes and impact costs as well as process robustness and integrity. The ideal printed circuit board finish would have good solderability, long shelf life, ease of fabrication/processing, robust environmental performance and provide dual soldering/wirebonding capabilities; unfortunately no single industry surface finish possesses all of these traits. The selection of a printed circuit board surface finish is ultimately a series of compromises for a given application....

Publisher: Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc

Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc

Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc is located in Richmond, KY, United States and is part of the Consumer Services Industry. Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc has 2 total employees across all of its locations ...

Richmond, Kentucky, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Reliability Testing For Microvias In Printed Wire Boards

Jan 21, 2021 | Bill Birch

Traditional single level microvia structures are generally considered the most robust type of interconnection within a printed wire board (PWB) substrate. The rapid implementation of HDI technology now commonly requires between 2, 3 or 4 levels of microvias sequentially processed into the product. Recent OEM funded reliability testing has confirmed that by increasing the levels (stack height) these structures are proving less reliable, when compared to their single or double level counterparts. Recently false positive results have been recorded on products tested with traditional thermal shock testing methodology (cycling between -40°C and 125°C, or 145°C). A number of companies are incurring product failures resulting in increased costs associated with replacing the circuit boards, components and added labour....

Publisher: PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB designs and manufactures test equipment and provides services to test the reliability of Printed Circuit Boards.

Nepean, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer

Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Sn-58Bi composite solder joint assembled using a low-temperature reflow process for PoP technology

Jan 13, 2021 | Yu-An Shen, Shiqi Zhou, Jiahui Li, Chih-han Yang, Sijie Huang, Shih-kang Lin, Hiroshi Nishikawa

Package-on-Package (PoP) is a popular technology for fabricating chipsets of accelerated processing units. However, the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between Si chips and polymer substrates induces thermal warpage during the reflow process. As such, the reflow temperature and reliability of solder joints are critical aspects of PoP. Although Sne58Bi is a good candidate for low-temperature processes, its brittleness causes other reliability issues. In this study, an in-situ observation was performed on composite solders (CSs) made of ......

Publisher: Osaka University

Osaka University

Osaka University, or Handai, is a public research university located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. It was one of Imperial Universities in Japan, one of the Designated National University and selected as a Top Type university ...

Osaka, Japan

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Design and Experiment of a Moving Magnet Actuator Based Jetting Dispenser

Jan 13, 2021 | Minh-Sang Tran and Sheng-Jye Hwang

Developing actuators to drive high-frequency jetting dispensers in the dispensing technology for electronic assembly applications has become a concern in recent years. This study proposed a new jetting dispenser without a displacement amplification mechanism directly actuated by a moving magnet actuator (MMA) to jet small fluid droplets. In this article, the main geometric dimensions of ......

Publisher: National Cheng Kung University

National Cheng Kung University

National Cheng Kung University is a public research university located in Tainan, Taiwan. NCKU is one of the best comprehensive universities in Taiwan and a leader in promoting industry-academia cooperation. ...

Tainan City, Taiwan

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Challenges of Manufacturing with Printed Circuit Board Cavities

Jan 06, 2021 | William O. Alger, Pedro J. Martinez, Weston C. Roth

Cavity technology in a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) has existed for many years. The methodology to create the cavity in the PCB has evolved over time as technologies have advanced and the manufacturing process varies by the individual PCB...

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer

Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting: SMT, BGA, CSP and Flip Chip Technologies

Jan 03, 2021 | Ning-Cheng Lee

Reflow soldering is the primary method for interconnecting surface mount technology (SMT) applications. Successful implementation of this process depends on whether a low defect rate can be achieved. In general, defects often can be attributed to causes rooted in all three aspects, including materials, processes, and designs. Troubleshooting of reflow soldering requires identification and elimination of root causes. Where correcting these causes may be beyond the reach of manufacturers, further optimizing the other relevant factors becomes the next best option in order to minimize the defect rate....

Publisher: SMTnet

,

Consultant / Service Provider, Marketing Agency, Media / Publisher / Online Resource, Other

D-PAK Voiding: A Study to Determine the Origins of D-PAK Voiding

Dec 29, 2020 | Kim Flanagan and Greg Wade

Voiding in bottom termination components (BTCs) like QFNs and LGAs have become quote the hot topic in the SMT industry. Surprisingly, one type of BTC component that is observed to have excessive amounts of voiding is the DPAK. One would think that a component with leads located on only one side would mitigate flux entrapment and allow outgassing to escape more easily from beneath the component, as compared to other BTCs where the component is affixed to the PCB on two or more sides. However, the exact opposite has been observed in most cases....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer

Fill the Void V - Mitigation of Voiding for Bottom Terminated Components

Dec 29, 2020 | Tony Lentz, FCT Assembly & Greg Smith, BlueRing Stencils

Voiding in solder joints has been studied extensively, and the effects of many variables compared and contrasted with respect to voiding performance. Solder paste flux, solder powder size, stencil design, circuit board design, via-in-pad design, surface finish, component size, reflow profile, vacuum reflow, nitrogen reflow and other parameters have been varied and voiding quantified for each. The results show some differences in voiding performance with respect to most of these variables but these variables are not independent of each other. Voiding in solder joints is a complex issue that often requires multiple approaches to reduce voiding below required limits. This paper focuses on solutions to voiding for commonly used bottom terminated components (BTCs)....

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer

Stress Analysis and Optimization of a Flip Chip on Flex Electronic Packaging Method for Functional Electronic Textiles

Dec 24, 2020 | englong Li , John Tudor, Russel Torah, and Steve Beeby, Senior Member, IEEE

A method for packaging integrated circuit silicon die in thin flexible circuits has been investigated that enables circuits to be subsequently integrated within textile yarns. This paper presents an investigation into the required materials and component dimensions in order to maximize the reliability of the packaging method. Two die sizes of 3.5 mm×8 mm× 0.53 mm and 2 mm×2 mm×0.1 mm have been simulated and evaluated experimentally under shear load and during bending. The shear and bending experimental results show good agreement with the simulation results and verify the simulated optimal thickness of the adhesive layer. Three underfill adhesives (EP30AO, EP37-3FLF, and Epo-Tek 301 2fl), three highly flexible adhesives (Loctite 4860, Loctite 480, and Loctite 4902), and three substrates (Kapton,Mylar, and PEEK) have been evaluated, and the optimal thickness of each is found. The Kapton substrate, together with the EP37-3FLF adhesive, was identified as the best materials combination with the optimum underfill and substrate thickness identified as 0.05 mm....

Publisher: University of Southampton

University of Southampton

The University of Southampton is a research university in Southampton, England. The university's origins date back to the founding of the Hartley Institution in 1862. In 1902, the Institution developed into the Hartley University

Highfield, Southampton, United Kingdom

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Investigating the Metric 0201 Assembly Process

Dec 24, 2020 | Clive Ashmore

The advance in technology and its relentless development is delivering yet another surface mount assembly challenge. To meet the market demand for products with higher functionality whilst reducing the overall product size, the next generation of chip package is being readied upon the surface mount community. The Metric 0201 will have dimensions in the order of 0.25mm x 0.125mm, as a result the entire assembly process will be questioned as to its ability to deliver high volume/quality product....

Publisher: ASM Assembly Systems (DEK)

ASM Assembly Systems (DEK)

The ASM SMT Solutions segment is made up of SMT Printing Solutions (DEK) and SMT Placement Solutions (SIPLACE). Under the DEK brand, it sells best-in-class printing solutions for the electronics and solar industries.

Suwanee, Georgia, USA

Manufacturer

Making Sense of Laminate Dielectric Properties

Dec 16, 2020 | Michael J. Gay and Richard Pangier

System operating speeds continue to increase as a function of the consumer demand for such technologies as faster Internet connectivity, video on demand, and mobile communications technology. As a result, new high performance PCB substrates have emerged to address signal integrity issues at higher operating frequencies. These are commonly called low Dk and/or low loss (Df) materials. The published "typical" values found on a product data sheet provide limited information, usually a single construction and resin content, and are derived from a wide range of test methods and test sample configurations. A printed circuit board designer or front end application engineer must be aware that making a design decision based on the limited information found on a product data sheet can lead to errors which can delay a product launch or increase the assembled PCB cost. The purpose of this paper is to highlight critical selection factors that go beyond a typical product data sheet and explain how these factors must be considered when selecting materials for high speed applications...

Publisher: Isola Group

Isola Group

Isola a global material sciences company focused on designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing copper-clad laminates and dielectric prepregs used to fabricate advanced multilayer PCBs.

Chandler, Arizona, USA

Manufacturer

Moisture Effect on Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Laminates with Different Void Content

Dec 16, 2020 | Afshin Bayatpour, Mehdi Hojjati

Fabrication of large structures using out-of-autoclave prepreg materials will lead to a great amount of savings in manufacturing costs. In the out-of-autoclave processing method, the presence of voids inside the laminate has been an issue due to the lack of high pressure during manufacturing. This study aims primarily to observe the moisture absorption response of composite samples containing different levels of void. By changing the vacuum level inside the bag during the manufacturing process, three different unidirectional laminates at three levels of void have been manufactured. After immersing the samples in warm water at 60°C for about one year, the moisture absorption level was monitored and then diffusion coefficients were calculated using Fick's law. Results show that the moisture absorption coefficient changes by %8 within the experimental range of void contents. The mechanical behaviour of these laminates has been studied at four different moisture levels by performing dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and short beam shear tests. Empirical results indicate that, in general, interlaminar shear strength and glass transition temperature decrease by moisture build-up inside the samples. DiBenedetto equation is proposed to make a correlation between the moisture content and glass transition temperature....

Publisher: Concordia University

Concordia University

As a next-generation university, Concordia sets its sights further and more broadly than others. We align the quality of learning opportunities to larger trends and substantial challenges facing society. We pursue technology ...

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Comparison Of Active And Passive Temperature Cycling

Dec 10, 2020 | Mathias Nowottnick, Andrej Novikov, Dirk Seehase, and Chris Kronwald

Electronic assemblies should have longer and longer service life. Today there are partially demanded 20 years of functional capability for electronics for automotive application. On the other hand, smaller components, such as resistors of size 0201, are able to endure an increasing number of thermal cycles until fail of solder joints, so these are tested sometimes up to 4000 cycles. But testing until the end of life is essential for the determination of failure rates and the prognosis of reliability. Such tests require a lot of time, but this is often not available in developing of new modules. A further acceleration by higher cycle temperatures is usually not possible, because the materials are already operated at the upper limit of the load. However, the duration can be shortened by the use of liquids for passive tests, which allow faster temperature changes and shorter dwell times because of better heat transfer compared to air. The question is whether such tests lead to comparable results and what failure mechanisms are becoming effective. The same goes for active temperature cycles, in which the components itself are heated from inside and the substrate remains comparatively cold. This paper describes the various accelerated temperature cycling tests, compares and evaluates the related degradation of solder joints....

Publisher: University of Rostock

University of Rostock

Founded in 1419, it is the third-oldest university in Germany. It is the oldest and largest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area, and 8th oldest in Central Europe.[3]

Rostock, Germany

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

A Non-destructive Approach to Identify Intermittent Failure Locations on Printed Circuit Cards (PCC) that have been Temperature Cycle Tested

Dec 07, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Temperature cycling testing is a method of accelerated life testing done to PCCs that are exposed to normal operation temperature variations over its lifetime. During the testing, intermittent "open" failures can first occur at the hot and cold extremes of the test, exposing weaknesses in the design and assembly. A poor/weak solder joint fatigues, a via trace or barrel cracks, loose connections or a component fails all causing an intermittent open. When not at extreme temperatures, the PCC assembly relaxes, the "open" closes creating electrical connectivity. If you are monitoring the PCC under test in-situ you will know that an intermittent failure has occurred, and the test could be stopped for inspection. If in-situ monitoring was not implemented, you would not know if there were intermittent failures or not. The PCC gets powered up and works fine at room temperature....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Standards Setting / Certification, Training Provider

SMT007-MIRTEC Intelligent Factory Automation Article-November 2020

Dec 02, 2020 | Brian D'Amico

Industry 4.0 is a topic of much discussion within the electronics manufacturing industry. Manufacturers and vendors are trying to come to terms with what that means. In the most simplistic of terms, Industry 4.0 is a trend toward automation and data exchange within the manufacturing process. This basically requires connectivity and communication from machine to machine within the manufacturing line. The challenge is to collect data from each of the systems within the line and make that data available to the rest of the machines. Without test and inspection, there is no Industry 4.0. The whole purpose of test and inspection is to collect actionable data that may be used to reduce defects and maximize efficiency within the manufacturing line. The goal is to minimize scrap and get a really good handle on those process parameters that need to be put in place to manufacture products the right way the first time. For maximum efficiency, three inspection systems are required within the production line. These are solder paste inspection (SPI) post-solder deposition, automated optical inspection (AOI) post-placement, and AOI post-reflow. This requires a substantial investment; however, the combination of all three inspection machines is really the only true way to provide feedback for each stage of the manufacturing process....

Publisher: MIRTEC Corp

MIRTEC Corp

MIRTEC has earned a solid reputation as one of the most Progressive and Dynamic Suppliers of Automated SMT Inspection Equipment to the Electronics Manufacturing Industry.

Oxford, Connecticut, USA

Manufacturer

Moisture Absorption Properties of Laminates Used in Chip Packaging Applications

Nov 29, 2020 | Gordon Smith, Nancy Androff, and Jeff Kamla

Plastic laminates are increasingly used as interposers within chip packaging applications. As a component within the package, the laminate is subjected to package moisture sensitivity testing. The moisture requirements of chip packaging laminates are related to ambient moisture absorption and thermal cycling. Printed wiring board (PWB) laminates, however, are gauged on properties relating to wet processes such as resist developing, copper etching, and pumice scrubbing. Consequently, printed wiring board moisture absorption test methods differ from chip packaging test conditions....

Publisher: Isola Group

Isola Group

Isola a global material sciences company focused on designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing copper-clad laminates and dielectric prepregs used to fabricate advanced multilayer PCBs.

Chandler, Arizona, USA

Manufacturer

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Laminates... but Were Afraid to Ask

Nov 29, 2020 | Chet Guiles

It has been over 25 years since the earliest edition of "Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Laminates...but Were Afraid to Ask" was pounded out on an old TRaSh-80 Computer. It has undergone periodic review and editing, including adaption for use on our website. (When I entered the industry Al Gore had not yet invented the internet.) Before I "retired" in 2004, we did another minor revision, but it was largely cosmetic, removing most references to the old military specification and introducing IPC-4101, the "new" specification for laminate and prepreg materials....

Publisher: Arlon Technology Enabling Innovation

Arlon Technology Enabling Innovation

Rancho Cucamonga , California, USA

How to Manage Material Outgassing in Reflow Oven

Nov 24, 2020 | Gerjan Diepstraten

In a lead-free reflow process, temperatures are higher, and materials use outgasses more than in a leaded reflow process. The trends toward higher density populated boards and more pin-in-paste technology also increase solder paste use. More components and more solder paste result in more outgassing of chemistry during the reflow process. Some assemblies report condensation of vapors when the cold printed circuit board enters the oven. Little is known about the interaction between these condensed materials in terms of the interaction between these condensed materials and the reliability of the assembly. Apart from the question of reliability, a printed circuit board contaminated with a small film of residues after reflow soldering is not desirable....

Publisher: Vitronics Soltec

Vitronics Soltec

Global manufacturer of XPM Reflow Ovens, ZEVA Selective Soldering and Delta Wave Soldering Equipment.

Camdenton, Missouri, USA

Manufacturer

The Risk And Solution For No-Clean Flux Not Fully Dried Under Component Terminations the Risk And Solution For No-Clean Flux Not Fully Dried Under Component Terminations

Nov 24, 2020 | Fen Chen and Ning Cheng Lee, Ph.D.

The miniaturization trend is driving industry to adopting low standoff components or components in cavity. The cost reduction pressure is pushing telecommunication industry to combine assembly of components and electromagnetic shield in one single reflow process. As a result, the flux outgassing/drying is getting very difficult for devices due to poor venting channel. This resulted in insufficiently dried/burnt-off flux residue. For a properly formulated flux, the remaining flux activity posed no issue in a dried flux residue for no-clean process. However, when venting channel is blocked, not only solvents remain, but also activators could not be burnt off. The presence of solvents allows mobility of active ingredients and the associated corrosion, thus poses a major threat to the reliability. In this work, a new halogen-free no-clean SnAgCu solder paste, 33-76-1, has been developed. This solder paste exhibited SIR value above the IPC spec 100 MΩ without any dendrite formation, even with a wet flux residue on the comb pattern. The wet flux residue was caused by covering the comb pattern with 10 mm × 10 mm glass slide during reflow and SIR testing in order to mimic the poorly vented low standoff components. The paste 33-76-1 also showed very good SMT assembly performance, including voiding of QFN and HIP resistance. The wetting ability of paste 33-76-1 was very good under nitrogen. For air reflow, 33-76-1 still matched paste C which is widely accepted by industry for air reflow process. The above good performance on both non-corrosivity with wet flux residue and robust SMT process can only be accomplished through a breakthrough in flux technology....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer

What is an analog signature analyzer and how does it work?

Nov 19, 2020 | Irina Slobodyanyuk

Simultaneously with the first complex electronic circuits, the task of creating effective means of diagnosing and repairing them appeared. In previous decades, specialized programmable stands were used for diagnostics of serial electronic products, as well as various testers and probes for troubleshooting during their operation. But the dramatic increase in the density / cost factor, in parallel with the very rapid modification of electronic products, made programmable stands economically ineffective even in mass production. The use of traditional laboratory equipment (oscilloscopes, multimeters, etc.) requires power supply to the defective modules, which is often impossible and unsafe, since it can lead to failure of the working modules of the module. In addition, the use of this equipment requires documentation and highly qualified personnel. More automated and sophisticated signature analysis systems came to the rescue in solving this problem. A feature of these devices is that they allow you to test digital and analog assemblies without dismantling components and without supplying voltage....

Publisher: Engineering Physics Center of MSU

Engineering Physics Center of MSU

We're engaged in the development and sale of complex electronics, automation of experimental installations in laser physics, creation of automatic testing systems and diagnostics of printed circuit boards and electronic components

Moscow, Russia

Manufacturer

Troubleshooting the STM32F429 board and restoring its operation

Nov 19, 2020 | Igor Degtyarev

How to repair boards if they have been produced for a long time, and the documentation is lost? In this case, intelligent recognition systems can help, which will allow you to identify component pins without documentation for the board. In this article, we will find the STM32F429 board malfunctions without any documentation and in the least amount of time....

Publisher: Engineering Physics Center of MSU

Engineering Physics Center of MSU

We're engaged in the development and sale of complex electronics, automation of experimental installations in laser physics, creation of automatic testing systems and diagnostics of printed circuit boards and electronic components

Moscow, Russia

Manufacturer

Designing a High Performance Electroless Nickel and Immersion Gold to Maximize Highest Reliability

Nov 15, 2020 | Robert Spreemann, Rick Nichols, Sandra Nelle

The latest highest reliability requirements demand a high performance electroless nickel and immersion gold (HP ENIG). The new IPC specification 4552A has refocused the industry with reference to nickel corrosion. The interpretation of the existing specification, that judges corrosion on 3 levels, is complex and if misinterpreted can lead to phantom failures. An obvious way to avoid any potential misinterpretation is to eradicate any evidence of corrosion completely....

Publisher: Atotech

Atotech

One of the world's leading suppliers of integrated production systems, chemistry, equipment, know-how and service for electroplating, semiconductor and printed circuit board manufacturing.

Berlin, Germany

Manufacturer

Comparing Soldering Results of ENIG and EPIG Post Steam Exposure

Nov 15, 2020 | J. Bengston and R. DePoto Uyemura International

ENIG, electroless nickel immersion gold is now a well-regarded finish used to enhance and preserve the solder-ability of copper circuits. EPIG, electroless palladium immersion gold, is a new surface finish also for enhancing and preserving solder-ability but with the advantage of eliminating Electroless Nickel from the deposit layer. This feature has become increasingly important with the increasing use of high frequeny PWB designs whereby nickel's magnetic properties are detrimental. We examine these two finishes and their respective soldering characteristics as plated and after steam aging and offer an explanation for the performance deviation....

Publisher: Uyemura International Corporation

Uyemura International Corporation

Ontario, , California, USA

Printed Electronics for Medical Devices

Nov 10, 2020 | Jeff Grover

As is the case with many other markets where faster, highly capable technologies have resulted in more intelligent processes and products, the medical device sector is also undergoing a "smart" transformation. This has driven the development of medical devices that provide greater access to in-home care and monitoring and faster results for medical professionals, with the overarching benefit of better patient outcomes. Devices applied to the human body that commonly sense...

Publisher: Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel is a manufacturer of materials for PCB and component assembly. The materials include Loctite adhesives, Multicore soldering products, Hysol encaps and underfills, and Power Devices thermal phase change pads.

Irvine, California, USA

Manufacturer

Reliability Challenges in Fabrication of Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Human Performance Monitors: A System Level Study

Nov 10, 2020 | Varun Soman, Student Member, IEEE, Yasser Khan, Madina Zabran, Mark Schadt, Member, IEEE, Paul Hart, Member, IEEE, Michael Shay, Member, IEEE, Frank Egitto, Member, IEEE, Konstantinos Papathomas, Member, IEEE, Natasha A. D. Yamamoto, Donggeon Han, Ana C.

Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) interface rigid electronic components with flexible sensors, circuits, and substrates. This paper reports the reliability improvement of a FHE Human Performance Monitor (HPM), designed to monitor electrocardiography (ECG) signals....

Publisher: Stanford University

Stanford University

Life. Energy. Environment. This triad of engineering priorities is perhaps unmatched in its potential for improving the quality of life for all inhabitants of planet Earth. And at the heart of all three is chemical engineering.

Stanford, California, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Ball Grid Array (BGA) Voiding Affecting Functionality

Nov 09, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

A customer contacted ACI Technologies regarding a high failure rate of their assemblies. They provided assemblies to be X-rayed and inspected for the purpose of identifying any process related issues such as (but not limited to) solder and assembly workmanship and evidence of damage due to moisture related problems during reflow (a.k.a. "popcorning"). Moisture damage usually appears as physical damage to the component. The first indication of moisture damage would be externally observable changes to the package in the form of bulging or fractures to the outer surface of the component, an example of which is shown in Figure 1. Internally observable indicators of moisture damage typically include fractures to the die inside the package and lifted or fractured wire bonds. These conditions would be apparent during transmissive X-ray inspection. Another symptom of moisture related damage would be inconsistent solder joint sizes that result from package deformation during the liquidus phase of the reflow process. None of these indicators of moisture related damage were present on the customer samples....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Standards Setting / Certification, Training Provider

WHY CLEAN A NO-CLEAN FLUX

Nov 04, 2020 | Mike Bixenman, DBA [Kyzen Corporation] Mark McMeen, [STI Corporation] Bruno Tolla, Ph.D. [Kester Corporation]

Residues present on circuit boards can cause leakage currents if not controlled and monitored. How "Clean is Clean" is neither easy nor cheap to determine. Most OEMs use analytical methods to assess the risk of harmful residues. The levels that can be associated with clean or dirty are typically determined based on the exposed environment where the part will be deployed. What is acceptably clean for one segment of the industry may be unacceptable for more demanding segments. As circuit assemblies increase in density, understanding cleanliness data becomes more challenging. The risk of premature failure or improper function is typically site specific. The problem is that most do not know how to measure or define cleanliness nor can they recognize process problems related to residues. A new site specific method has been designed to run performance qualifications on boards built with specific soldering materials, reflow settings and cleaning methods. High impedance measurements are performed on break off coupons designed with components geometries used to build the assembly. The test method provides a gauge of potential contamination sources coming from the assembly process that can contribute to electrochemical migration....

Publisher: KYZEN Corporation

KYZEN Corporation

A leading supplier of precision cleaning chemistries to the worldwide electronics, metal finishing, medical, semiconductor, and optical industries.

Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Manufacturer

Higher Defluxing Temperature and Low Standoff Component Cleaning - A Connection?

Nov 04, 2020 | Jigar Patel and Umut Tosun

OEMs and CMs designing and building electronic assemblies for high reliability applications are typically faced with a decision to clean or not to clean the assembly. If ionic residues remain on the substrate surface, potential failure mechanisms, including dendritic growth by electrochemical migration reaction and leakage current, may result. These failures have been well documented. If a decision to clean substrates is made, there are numerous cleaning process options available. For defluxing applications, the most common systems are spray-in-air, employing either batch or inline cleaning equipment and an engineered aqueous based cleaning agent. Regardless of the type of cleaning process adopted, effective cleaning of post solder residue requires chemical, thermal and mechanical energies. The chemical energy is derived from the engineered cleaning agent; the thermal energy from the increased temperature of the cleaning agent, and the mechanical energy from the pump system employed within the cleaning equipment. The pump system, which includes spray pressure, spray bar configuration and nozzle selection, is optimized for the specific process to create an efficient cleaning system. As board density has increased and component standoff heights have decreased, cleaning processes are steadily challenged. Over time, cleaning agent formulations have advanced to match new solder paste developments, spray system configurations have improved, and wash temperatures (thermal energy) have been limited to a maximum of 160ºF. In most cases, this is due to thermal limitations of the materials used to build the polymer-based cleaning equipment. Building equipment out of stainless steel is an option, but one that may be cost prohibitive. Given the maximum allowable wash temperature, difficult cleaning applications are met by increasing the wash exposure time; including reducing the conveyor speed of inline cleaners or extending wash time in batch cleaners. Although this yields effective cleaning results, process productivity may be compromised. However, high temperature resistant polymer materials, capable of withstanding a 180°F wash temperature, are now available and can be used in cleaning equipment builds. For this study, the authors explored the potential for increasing cleaning process efficiency as a result of an increase in thermal energy due to the use of higher wash temperature. The cleaning equipment selected was an inline cleaner built with high temperature resistant polymer material. For the analysis, standard substrates were used. These were populated with numerous low standoff chip cap components and soldered with both no-clean tin-lead and lead-free solder pastes. Two aqueous based cleaning agents were selected, and multiple wash temperatures and wash exposure times were evaluated. Cleanliness assessments were made through visual analysis of under-component inspection, as well as localized extraction and Ion Chromatography in accordance with current IPC standards....

Publisher: ZESTRON Americas

ZESTRON Americas

The globally leading provider of high precision cleaning products, services and training solutions in the electronics and semiconductor manufacturing industries.

Manassas, Virginia, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer, Training Provider

Orbotech Trion 2340 Manual

Oct 30, 2020 | Aneryn

Preview of the Complete Aneryn's Orbotech Trion 2340 Manual. It explains how to programme the AOI machine, how to train new components (shapes), how to connect it to your network, among other processes. Following the Guide, you will minimize false alarms and escapes rates easily. Full Manual available at <a href="https://aneryn.com/creation/trion-2340-manual/">https://aneryn.com/creation/trion-2340-manual/</a>...

Publisher: Aneryn

Aneryn

We provide custom software for industry. We develop engineering projects as well. Our electronic, control and mechanical engineers are at your service. Based in Barcelona.

Terrassa, Spain

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Solder Joint Reliability of Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu Ball Grid Array (BGA) Components in Sn-Pb Assembly Process

Oct 27, 2020 | Robert Kinyanjui, Ph.D., Quyen Chu, Polina Snugovsky, Ph.D., Richard Coyle, Ph.D.

For companies that choose to take the Pb-free exemption under the European Union's RoHS Directive and continue to manufacture tin-lead (Sn-Pb) electronic products, there is a growing concern about the lack of Sn-Pb ball grid array (BGA) components. Many companies are compelled to use the Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) BGA components in a Sn-Pb process, for which the assembly process and solder joint reliability have not yet been fully characterized. A careful experimental investigation was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of solder joints of SAC BGA components formed using Sn-Pb solder paste. This evaluation specifically looked at the impact of package size, solder ball volume, printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish, time above liquidus and peak temperature on reliability. Four different BGA package sizes (ranging from 8 to 45 mm2) were selected with ball-to-ball pitch size ranging from 0.5mm to 1.27mm. Two different PCB finishes were used: electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and organic solderability preservative (OSP) on copper. Four different profiles were developed with the maximum peak temperatures of 210oC and 215oC and time above liquidus ranging from 60 to 120 seconds using Sn-Pb paste. One profile was generated for a lead-free control. A total of 60 boards were assembled. Some of the boards were subjected to an as assembled analysis while others were subjected to an accelerated thermal cycling (ATC) test in the temperature range of -40oC to 125oC for a maximum of 3500 cycles in accordance with IPC 9701A standard. Weibull plots were created and failure analysis performed. Analysis of as-assembled solder joints revealed that for a time above liquidus of 120 seconds and below, the degree of mixing between the BGA SAC ball alloy and the Sn-Pb solder paste was less than 100 percent for packages with a ball pitch of 0.8mm or greater. Depending on package size, the peak reflow temperature was observed to have a significant impact on the solder joint microstructural homogeneity. The influence of reflow process parameters on solder joint reliability was clearly manifested in the Weibull plots. This paper provides a discussion of the impact of various profiles' characteristics on the extent of mixing between SAC and Sn-Pb solder alloys and the associated thermal cyclic fatigue performance....

Publisher: Sanmina-SCI

Sanmina-SCI

Sanmina-SCI is a tier 1 provider of EMS and PWB along with vertically integrated capabilities from design through qualification.

San Jose, California, USA

Size Matters - The Effects of Solder Powder Size on Solder Paste Performance

Oct 27, 2020 | Tony Lentz

Solder powder size is a popular topic in the electronics industry due to the continuing trend of miniaturization of electronics. The question commonly asked is "when should we switch from Type 3 to a smaller solder powder?" Solder powder size is usually chosen based on the printing requirements for the solder paste. It is common practice to use IPC Type 4 or 5 solder powders for stencil designs that include area ratios below the recommended IPC limit of 0.66. The effects of solder powder size on printability of solder paste have been well documented. The size of the solder powder affects the performance of the solder paste in other ways. Shelf life, stencil life, reflow performance, voiding behavior, and reactivity / stability are all affected by solder powder size. Testing was conducted to measure each of these solder paste performance attributes for IPC Type 3, Type 4, Type 5 and Type 6 SAC305 solder powders in both water soluble and no clean solder pastes. The performance data for each size of solder powder in each solder paste flux was quantified and summarized. Guidance for choosing the optimal size of solder powder is given based on the results of this study....

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer

Interconnect Reliability Correlation with System Design and Transportation Stress

Oct 18, 2020 | Dr. Paul Wang, Vincent Weng, and Dr. Kim Sang Chim

Interconnect reliability especially in BGA solder joints and compliant pins are subjected to design parameters which are very critical to ensure product performance at pre-defined shipping condition and user environment. Plating thickness of compliant pin and damping mechanism of electronic system design are key successful factors for this purpose. In additional transportation and material handling process of a computer server system will be affected by shock under certain conditions. Many accessories devices in the server computer system tend to become loose resulting in poor contact or solder intermittent interconnect problems due to the shock load from the transportation and material handling processes....

Publisher: MiTAC International Corporation

MiTAC International Corporation

MiTAC Holdings Group has been developing into a multinational organization of JDM / ODM / OEM / OPM (Original Product Manufacture), design and R&D, manufacturing, testing, assembling, marketing, and servicing in around four decade

Taoyuan City, Taiwan

Manufacturer

Realization of a New Concept for Power Chip Embedding

Oct 18, 2020 | H. Stahr, M. Morianz, I. Salkovic

Embedded components technology has launched its implementation in volume products demanding high levels of miniaturization. Small modules with embedded dies and passive components on the top side are mounted in hand held devices. Smartphones have been the enablers for this new technology using the capabilities of embedded components. With this technological background another business field became interesting for embedded components – the embedded power electronics. The roadmap of the automotive industry shows a clear demand for miniaturized power electronic applications. Drivers are the regulations for the international fleet emissions which are focusing on three major trends....

Publisher: AT & S Austria Technologie & Systemtechnik Aktiengesellschaft

AT & S Austria Technologie & Systemtechnik Aktiengesellschaft

Mission: First choice for advanced applications Mission: We set the highest quality standards in our industry. We industrialize leading-edge technology. We care about people. We reduce our ecological footprint. We create value.

Leoben, Austria

Manufacturer

Effect of Morphology of Calcium Carbonate on Toughness Behavior and Thermal Stability of Epoxy-Based Composites

Oct 14, 2020 | Guijun Yang, Young-Jung Heo and Soo-Jin Park

In this study, the modification of an epoxy matrix with different amounts of cube-like and rod-like CaCO3 nanoparticles was investigated. The effects of variations in the morphology of CaCO3 on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the CaCO3/epoxy composites were studied. The rod-like CaCO3/epoxy composites (EP-rod) showed a higher degradation temperature (4.5 _C) than neat epoxy. The results showed that the mechanical properties, such as the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness of the epoxy composites with CaCO3 were enhanced by the addition of cube-like and rod-like CaCO3 nanoparticles. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the composites were enhanced by increasing the amount of CaCO3 added but decreased when the filler content reached 2%. The fracture toughness Kic and fracture energy release rate Gic of cube-like and rod-like CaCO3/epoxy composites (0.85/0.74 MPa m1/2 and 318.7/229.5 J m...

Publisher: Inha University

Inha University

Development of Character, Search for the Truth, and Service to Society Founded in 1954 to fulfill the dearest wish of empowering and bringing prosperity to the nation, Inha University stands for the Ideals of building students'

Incheon, South Korea

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

ADVANCED BORON NITRIDE EPOXY FORMULATIONS EXCEL IN THERMAL MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS

Oct 14, 2020 | Michael J. Hodgin and Richard H. Estes

Epoxy based adhesives are prevalent interface materials for all levels of electronic packaging. One reason for their widespread success is their ability to accept fillers. Fillers allow the adhesive formulator to tailor the electrical and thermal properties of a given epoxy. Silver flake allow the adhesive to be both electrically conductive and thermally conductive. For potting applications, heat sinking, and general encapsulation where high electrical isolation is required, aluminum oxide has been the filler of choice. Today, advanced Boron Nitride filled epoxies challenge alternative thermal interface materials like silicones, greases, tapes, or pads. The paper discusses key attributes for designing and formulating advanced thermally conductive epoxies. Comparisons to other common fillers used in packaging are made. The filler size, shape and distribution, as well as concentration in the resin, will determine the adhesive viscosity and rheology. Correlation's between Thermal Resistance calculations and adhesive viscosity are made. Examples are shown that determination of thermal conductivity values in "bulk" form, do not translate into actual package thermal resistance. Four commercially available thermally conductive adhesives were obtained for the study. Adhesives were screened by shear strength measurements, Thermal Cycling ( -55 °C to 125 °C ) Resistance, and damp heat ( 85 °C / 85 %RH ) resistance. The results indicate that low modulus Boron Nitride filled epoxies are superior in formulation and design. Careful selection of stress relief agents, filler morphology, and concentration levels are critical choices the skilled formulator must make. The advantages and limitations of each are discussed and demonstrated....

Publisher: Epoxy Technology, Inc.

Epoxy Technology, Inc.

Epoxy Technology, Inc., founded in 1966, is a pioneer in the development and manufacture of Specialty Epoxy, UV & UV Hybrid adhesives to meet key performance standards needed in high-tech applications.

Billerica, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE ADHESIVES

Oct 14, 2020 | John Timmerman, Maria Salamon

Thermally conductive adhesives provide many advantages over traditional mechanical fastening techniques. Specifically, they use less material and space and are more amenable to automation than existing solutions. The thermal and mechanical properties of these materials are well understood but little work has been done to characterize and understand their toughness and fracture behavior. This paper presents the effects of filler loading as well as matrix composition on the fracture toughness of thermally conductive silicone adhesives. It was observed that the fracture toughness of these materials increased significantly with initial filler loading, and that the mechanical properties and fracture toughness depended on the molecular architecture of the matrix used....

Publisher: Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel is a manufacturer of materials for PCB and component assembly. The materials include Loctite adhesives, Multicore soldering products, Hysol encaps and underfills, and Power Devices thermal phase change pads.

Irvine, California, USA

Manufacturer

Keep Your Business Going Even In the Lockdown Through A CRM Solution

Oct 08, 2020 | Anchal Solanki

You are afraid of losing your business during this global COVID-19 crisis. But now, you got a ray of light to bring back your firm on track without breaking the bank. You must be thinking that how CRM software can provide you the juices that you require to sustain your business....

Publisher: FinCRM Technologies

FinCRM Technologies

FinCRM holds expertise in providing Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software and Full Stack Office Management solutions.

Pune, India

Consultant / Service Provider

Optimized Stress Testing for Flexible Hybrid Electronics Designs

Oct 08, 2020 | Hang Gao, Ganapati Bhat, Umit Y. Ogras, and Sule Ozev

Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) is emerging as a promising solution to combine the benefits of printed electronics and silicon technology. FHE has many high-impact potential areas, such as wearable applications, health monitoring, and soft robotics, due to its physical advantages, which include light weight, low cost and the ability conform to different shapes. However, physical deformations in the field can lead to significant testing and validation challenges. For example, designers must ensure that FHE devices continue to meet their specs even when the components experience stress due to bending. Hence, physical deformation, which is hard to emulate, has to be part of the test procedures for FHE devices. This paper is the first to analyze stress experience at different parts of FHE devices under different bending conditions. We develop a novel methodology to maximize the test coverage with minimum number of text vectors with the help of a mixed integer linear programming formulation. We validate the proposed approach using an FHE prototype and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations...

Publisher: Arizona State University

Arizona State University

Continued strength Our faculty, students and staff have redoubled their collaborative efforts to strengthen, grow and broaden the programs in the School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering. The school's continued streng

Tempe, Arizona, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Design and Integration of aWireless Stretchable Multimodal Sensor Network in a Composite Wing

Oct 08, 2020 | Xiyuan Chen, Loic Maxwell, Franklin Li , Amrita Kumar, Elliot Ransom, Tanay Topac, Sera Lee, Mohammad Faisal Haider , Sameh Dardona and Fu-Kuo Chang

This article presents the development of a stretchable sensor network with high signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy for real-time distributed sensing and remote monitoring. The described sensor network was designed as an island-and-serpentine type network comprising a grid of sensor "islands" connected by interconnecting "serpentines." A novel high-yield manufacturing process was developed to fabricate networks on recyclable 4-inch wafers at a low cost. The resulting stretched sensor network has 17 distributed and functionalized sensing nodes with low tolerance and high resolution. The sensor network includes Piezoelectric (PZT), Strain Gauge(SG), and Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) sensors. The design and development of a flexible frame with signal conditioning, data acquisition, and wireless data transmission electronics for the stretchable sensor network are also presented. The primary purpose of the frame subsystem is to convert sensor signals into meaningful data, which are displayed in real-time for an end-user to view and analyze. The challenges and demonstrated successes in developing this new system are demonstrated, including (a) developing separate signal conditioning circuitry and components for all three sensor types (b) enabling simultaneous sampling for PZT sensors for impact detection and (c)configuration of firmware/software for correct system operation. The network was expanded with an in-house developed automated stretch machine to expand it to cover the desired area. The released and stretched network was laminated into an aerospace composite wing with edge-mount electronics for signal conditioning, processing, power, and wireless communication....

Publisher: Stanford University

Stanford University

Life. Energy. Environment. This triad of engineering priorities is perhaps unmatched in its potential for improving the quality of life for all inhabitants of planet Earth. And at the heart of all three is chemical engineering.

Stanford, California, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Silicone Thermally Conductive Grease: Improving Thermal Management of Electronic Assemblies

Sep 30, 2020 | Carlos Montemayor

Introduction •Market trend: Smaller, more efficient, more powerful, run faster •ICs and other sophisticated electronic components typically operate efficiently only under a certain range of temperatures •Operational temperatures must be kept within a suitable range • Excessive heat can damage performance and can even cause system failure...

Publisher: Dow Electronic Materials

Dow Electronic Materials

DEM develops and markets highly sophisticated materials used in the electronic materials segment of the global electronics value chain.

Marlborough, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer

High and Matched Refractive Index Liquid Adhesives for Optical Device Assembly

Sep 30, 2020 | Taro Kenmochi

There is an increase in the number of optical sensors and cameras being integrated into electronics devices. These go beyond cell phone cameras into automotive sensors, wearables, and other smart devices. The applications can be lens bonding, waveguide imprinting, or other applications where the adhesive is in the optical pathway. To support these various optical applications, new materials with tailorable optical properties are required. There is often a mismatched refractive index between plastic lenses such as PC (Poly Carbonate), COP (Cyclo Olefin Polymer), COC (Cyclo Olefin Copolymer), PMMA (Poly Methyl Methacrylate), and UV curable liquid adhesive. A UV curable liquid adhesive is needed where you can alter the refractive index from 1.470 to 1.730, and maintain high optical performance as yellowness index, haze, and transmittance. This wide range of refractive index possibilities provides optimized optical design. Using particular plastic lens must consider how chemical attack is occurring during the process. Another consideration is that before the UV curable liquid adhesive is cured, chemical raw component can attack the plastic lens which then cracks and delaminates. We will also show engineering and reliability data which defined root cause and provided how optical performance is maintained under different reliability conditions....

Publisher: Kyoritsu Chemical & Co., Ltd

Kyoritsu Chemical & Co., Ltd

Research, development, manufacturing and marketing of sophisticated chemical products developed by applying fine chemicals and nano-technologies in cutting-edge fields such as home information appliances, IT, semiconductors, batte

Tokyo, Japan

Manufacturer

Optimising Solder Paste Volume for Low Temperature Reflow of BGA Packages

Sep 23, 2020 | Keith Sweatman

The need to minimise thermal damage to components and laminates, to reduce warpage-induced defects to BGA packages, and to save energy, is driving the electronics industry towards lower process temperatures. For soldering processes the only way that temperatures can be substantially reduced is by using solders with lower melting points. Because of constraints of toxicity, cost and performance, the number of alloys that can be used for electronics assembly is limited and the best prospects appear to be those based around the eutectic in the Bi-Sn system, which has a melting point of about 139°C. Experience so far indicates that such Bi-Sn alloys do not have the mechanical properties and microstructural stability necessary to deliver the reliability required for the mounting of BGA packages. Options for improving mechanical properties with alloying additions that do not also push the process temperature back over 200°C are limited. An alternative approach that maintains a low process temperature is to form a hybrid joint with a conventional solder ball reflowed with a Bi-Sn alloy paste. During reflow there is mixing of the ball and paste alloys but it has been found that to achieve the best reliability a proportion of the ball alloy has to be retained in the joint, particular in the part of the joint that is subjected to maximum shear stress in service, which is usually the area near the component side. The challenge is then to find a reproducible method for controlling the fraction of the joint thickness that remains as the original solder ball alloy. Empirical evidence indicates that for a particular combination of ball and paste alloys and reflow temperature the extent to which the ball alloy is consumed by mixing with the paste alloy is dependent on the volume of paste deposited on the pad. If this promising method of achieving lower process temperatures is to be implemented in mass production without compromising reliability it would be necessary to have a method of ensuring the optimum proportion of ball alloy left in the joint after reflow can be consistently maintained. In this paper the author explains how the volume of low melting point alloy paste that delivers the optimum proportion of retained ball alloy for a particular reflow temperature can be determined by reference to the phase diagrams of the ball and paste alloys. The example presented is based on the equilibrium phase diagram of the binary Bi-Sn system but the method could be applied to any combination of ball and paste alloys for which at least a partial phase diagram is available or could be easily determined....

Publisher: Nihon Superior Co. Ltd

Nihon Superior Co. Ltd

Production and distribution of metal jointing materials for electronics (solder, flux, brazing alloys, etc) Sales of nonferrous metal Export-import business

Osaka, Japan

Manufacturer

Low Temperature SMT Solder Evaluation

Sep 23, 2020 | Howard "Rusty" Osgood, David Geiger, Robert Pennings, Christian Biederman, Jie Jiang, Jon Bernal

The electronics industry could benefit greatly from using a reliable, manufacturable, reduced temperature, SMT solder material (alloy-composition) which is cost competitive with traditional Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. The many possible advantages and some disadvantages / challenges are discussed. Until recently, the use of Sn/Bi based materials has been investigated with negative consequences for high strain rate (drop-shock) applications and thus, these alloys have been avoided. Recent advances in alloy "doping" have opened the door to revisit Sn/Bi alloys as a possible alternative to SAC-305 for many applications. We tested the manufacturability and reliability of three low-temperature and one SAC-305 (used as a control) solder paste materials. Two of these materials are doped Sn/Bi/Ag and one is just Sn/Bi/Ag1%. We will discuss the tests and related results. And lastly, we will discuss the prospects, applications and possible implications (based on this evaluation) of these materials together with future actions....

Publisher: Flextronics International

Flextronics International

Flex Ltd. is an American Singaporean-domiciled multinational electronics contract manufacturer. It is the third-largest global electronics manufacturing services, original design manufacturer company by revenue, behind only ...

Milpitas, California, USA

Manufacturer

Approaches for additive manufacturing of 3D electronic applications

Sep 16, 2020 | Hoerber, J.; Glasschroeder, J.; Pfeffer, M.; Schilp, J.; Zaeh, M.; Franke, J.

Additive manufacturing processes typically used for mechanical parts can be combined with enhanced technologies for electronics production to enable a highly flexible manufacturing of personalized 3D electronic devices. To illustrate different approaches for implementing electrical and electronic functionality, conductive paths and electronic components were embedded in a powder bed printed substrate using an enhanced 3D printer. In addition, a modified Aerosol Jet printing process and assembly technologies adapted from the technology of Molded Interconnect Devices were applied to print circuit patterns and to electrically interconnect components on the surface of the 3D substrates....

Publisher: Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems (FAPS)

Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems (FAPS)

At the Technical Faculty (TF) of the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) more than 20 engineering and computer science courses are offered. The TF has an excellent reputation in science and business.

Nuremberg, Germany

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

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