Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.

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1432 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Introduction Of A New PCB Surface Finish For The Electronics Industry

Jul 06, 2021 | Frank Ferdinandi

A new PCB surface finish has been developed that offers outstanding performance and excellent environmental protection. This finish has the potential to replace more common finishes such as ENIG, ImAg, ImSn, ENEPIG, or OSP with a chemically resistant plasma deposited coating. The substitution of the wet processes with this dry plasma process offers significant advantages e.g. lower quantities of chemicals used, environmental benefits and improved operator safety....

Publisher: Semblant Technologies

Semblant Technologies

Semblant is a l leader in innovating and deploying nanomaterials in the electronics industry. The company's unique nanotechnology solutions, backed by a broad range of fundamental patents, have been designed specifically to ...

London, United Kingdom


How Does Surface Finish Affect Solder Paste Performance?

Jul 06, 2021 | Tony Lentz

The surface finishes commonly used on printed circuit boards (PCBs) have an effect on solder paste performance in the surface mount process. Some surface finishes are non-planar like hot air solder level (HASL) which can lead to inconsistencies in solder paste printing. Other surface finishes are difficult to wet during reflow like organic solderability preservative (OSP). What is the overall effect of surface finish on solder paste performance? Which solder paste is best for each surface finish? It is the goal of this paper to answer these questions....



With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA


Understanding the Cleaning Process for Automatic Stencil Printers

Jun 28, 2021 | Ed Nauss

The automatic stencil wiper –first line of defense 2 • The Printing process and why we need to focus on the wiping function • Frequency of wiping • Wiping options • Wiper profiles • Event driven wiping • Advanced options • Materials – Paper • Materials – Solvent • Preventive maintenance • Random stuff...

Publisher: ITW EAE


ITW EAE is a manufacturer of equipment used in the electronic assembly and semiconductor industries. The group brings together world-class products from Camalot, Despatch, Electrovert, MPM, and Vitronics Soltec.

Lakeville, Minnesota, USA


The Reasons for Cleaning

Jun 28, 2021 | Michael Konrad

This book is a compilation of many articles I have published on the subjects of cleaning, reliability, and cleanliness testing. Throughout these articles, I promote a common mantra: Clean is better than dirty. Less contamination is better than more contamination. Some assemblies can tolerate more contamination; others, less....

Publisher: Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Aqueous Technologies Corporation

Manufacturer of automated defluxing/cleaning equipment, cleanliness testing equipment, and stencil cleaning equipment.

Corona, California, USA


Innovative Electroplating Processes for IC Substrates - Via Fill, Through Hole Fill, and Embedded Trench Fill

Jun 21, 2021 | Saminda Dharmarathna , Sy Maddux , Chao Benjamin , Ivan Li , William Bowermana , Kesheng Feng , Jim Watkowski

In this era of electronics miniaturization, high yield and low-cost integrated circuit (IC) substrates play a crucial role by providing a reliable method of high density interconnection of chip to board. In order to maximize substrate real-estate, the distance between Cu traces also known as line and space (L/S) should be minimized. Typical PCB technology consists of L/S larger than 40 µ whereas more advanced wafer level technology currently sits at or around 2 µm L/S. In the past decade, the chip size has decreased significantly along with the L/S on the substrate. The decreasing chip scales and smaller L/S distances has created unique challenges for both printed circuit board (PCB) industry and the semiconductor industry. Fan-out panel-level packaging (FOPLP) is a new manufacturing technology that seeks to bring the PCB world and IC/semiconductor world even closer. While FOPLP is still an emerging technology, the amount of high-volume production in this market space provide a financial incentive to develop innovative solutions in order to enable its ramp up. The most important performance aspect of the fine line plating in this market space is plating uniformity or planarity. Plating uniformity, trace/via top planarity, which measures how flat the top of the traces and vias are a few major features. This is especially important in multilayer processing, as nonuniformity on a lower layer can be transferred to successive layers, disrupting the device design with catastrophic consequences such as short circuits. Additionally, a non-planar surface could also result in signal transmission loss by distortion of the connecting points, like vias and traces. Therefore, plating solutions that provide a uniform, planar profile without any special post treatment are quite desirable....

Publisher: MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid is a global provider of specialty chemicals for the most complex printed circuit board designs. We specialize in the areas of final finishes, through-hole metallization, and circuit formation.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA


Simulation of Droplet Jetting of a Non-Newtonian Mixed Suspension

Jun 15, 2021 | Martin Svensson, Andreas Mark, Fredrik Edelvik, Andrzej Karawajczyk and Gustaf Mårtensson

The jet printing of a dense mixed non-Newtonian suspension is based on the rapid displacement of fluid through a nozzle, the forming of a droplet and eventually the break-off of the filament. The ability to model this process would facilitate the development of future jetting devices. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel simulation framework and to show that it captures the main effects such as droplet shape, volume and speed. In the framework, the time dependent flow and the fluid-structure interaction between the suspension, the moving piston and the deflection of the jetting head is simulated. The system is modelled as a two phase system with the surrounding air being one phase and the dense suspension the other. Hence, the non-Newtonian suspension is modelled as a mixed single phase with properties determined from material testing. The simulations were performed with two coupled in-house solvers developed at Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre; IBOFlow, a multiphase flow solver and LaStFEM, a large strain FEM solver. Jetting behaviour was shown to be affected not only by piston motion and fluid rheology, but also by the energy loss in the jetting head. The simulation results were compared to experimental data obtained from an industrial jetting head....

Publisher: Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industustrial Mathematics

Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industustrial Mathematics

FCC offers Contract Research, Software and Services for a broad range of industrial applications. Modelling, Simulation and Optimization of products and processes can boost technical development, improve efficiency and cut costs

Göteborg, Sweden

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Design and Experiment of a Solder Paste Jetting System Driven by a Piezoelectric Stack

Jun 15, 2021 | Shoudong Gu, Xiaoyang Jiao, Jianfang Liu, Zhigang Yang, Hai Jiang and Qingqing Lv

To compensate for the insufficiency and instability of solder paste dispensing and printing that are used in the SMT (Surface Mount Technology) production process, a noncontact solder paste jetting system driven by a piezoelectric stack based on the principle of the nozzle-needle-system is introduced in this paper, in which a miniscule gap exists between the nozzle and needle during the jetting process. Here, the critical jet ejection velocity is discussed through theoretical analysis. The relations between ejection velocity and needle structure, needle velocity, and nozzle diameter were obtained by FLUENT software. Then, the prototype of the solder paste jetting system was fabricated, and the performance was verified by experiments. The effects of the gap between nozzle and needle, the driving voltage, and the nozzle diameter on the jetting performance and droplet diameter were obtained. Solder paste droplets 0.85 mm in diameter were produced when the gap between the nozzle and needle was adjusted to 10 _m, the driving voltage to 80 V, the nozzle diameter to 0.1 mm, and the variation of the droplet diameter was within _3%....

Publisher: Jilin University

Jilin University

Founded in 1946, Jilin University It is a key comprehensive university under the direct jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, and strongly supported by China’s "Project 211" and "Project 985".

Changchun, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Dispensing EMI Shielding Materials: An Alternative to Sputtering

Jun 15, 2021 | Garrett Wong & Jinu Choi

Shielding electronic systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI) has become a hot topic. Technological advancements toward 5G standards, wireless charging of mobile electronics, in-package antenna integration, and system-in-package (SiP) adoption are driving the need to apply more effective EMI shielding and isolation to component packages and larger modules. For conformal shielding, EMI shielding materials for exterior package surfaces have mostly been applied with a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process of sputtering, leveraging front-end packaging technologies to back-end packaging applications. However, sputtering technology challenges in scalability and cost along with advancements in dispensable materials are driving considerations for alternative dispensing techniques for EMI shielding....

Publisher: ASYMTEK Products | Nordson Electronics Solutions

ASYMTEK Products | Nordson Electronics Solutions

A leader in automated fluid dispensing, jetting, and conformal coating. Products include stand-alone dispensing workstations and fully automated, in-line conveyorized systems with advanced process controls.

Carlsbad, California, USA


Enabling Advanced Assembly and Packaging with Automated Dispensing

Jun 15, 2021 | Jeff Leal

Today's automated dispensing for electronics manufacturing is a complex and precise process in order to meet the challenges posed by ever more demanding assembly and component technology requirements. Dedicated dispenser technology is key to success in meeting challenging applications in a production environment with precision and repeatability. The major components that comprise a dispenser will be described, with a view toward understanding the importance of each; the result will illustrate how these sub-systems combine to create high-volume dispensing platforms. Real world examples with data substantiating the speed and accuracy obtained for some of the most common advanced dispensing applications in the market will be demonstrated such as high speed surface mount adhesive, wafer level Underfill and shield edge interconnects....

Publisher: Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies serves the electronics assembly and semiconductor packaging industries with class-leading equipment, responsive support and unparalleled process knowledge.

Franklin, Massachusetts, USA


Ping-pong type FPC universal test equipment

Jun 10, 2021 | pti

test equipment /FPC universal...

Publisher: Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Shenzhen PTI Technology CO.,LTD

Our company was established in 2004, Main products: ICT on-line tester, ICT, functional testing machine 、FCT、 TSI、 automatic test and control system (ATE), test automation solutions, etc.

深圳, China


Characteristics of Metals Leached from Waste Printed Circuit Boards Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

Jun 07, 2021 | Jinsung An

The aim of this study was to compare leaching characteristics of metals from printed circuit boards (PCBs), taken from waste electrical and electronic equipment in the presence and in the absence of the iron-oxidizing bacteria, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. A. ferrooxidans not only increases the leached concentration of Cu from the PCBs, but also inhibits the components of the 0K medium and leached Cu from forming precipitates such as libethenite (Cu2(PO4)(OH)), thereby assisting Cu recovery from the PCBs. In addition, the leached concentration of Pb from PCBs decreased in the presence of A. ferrooxidans, due to Pb forming amorphous precipitates. It is expected that Pb is not highly toxic to A. ferrooxidans. Consequently, A. ferrooxidans can be used as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way to leach out valuable metals from PCBs as low-grade urban ore....

Publisher: Semyung University

Semyung University

Semyung University educates students to make the world a brighter place. Because it means to cultivate human beings that become the light in the world and to make humanity greatly beneficial, It is a concept that encompasses ...

Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Estimating Recycling Return of Integrated Circuits Using Computer Vision on Printed Circuit Boards

Jun 07, 2021 | Leandro H. de S. Silva , Agostinho A. F. Júnior, George O. A. Azevedo, Sergio C. Oliveira and Bruno J. T. Fernandes

The technological growth of the last decades has brought many improvements in daily life, but also concerns on how to deal with electronic waste. Electrical and electronic equipment waste is the fastest-growing rate in the industrialized world. One of the elements of electronic equipment is the printed circuit board (PCB) and almost every electronic equipment has a PCB inside it. While waste PCB (WPCB) recycling may result in the recovery of potentially precious materials and the reuse of some components, it is a challenging task because its composition diversity requires a cautious pre-processing stage to achieve optimal recycling outcomes. Our research focused on proposing a method to evaluate the economic feasibility of recycling integrated circuits (ICs) from WPCB. The proposed method can help decide whether to dismantle a separate WPCB before the physical or mechanical recycling process and consists of estimating the IC area from a WPCB, calculating the IC's weight using surface density, and estimating how much metal can be recovered by recycling those ICs. To estimate the IC area in a WPCB, we used a state-of-the-art object detection deep learning model (YOLO) and the PCB DSLR image dataset to detect the WPCB's ICs. Regarding IC detection, the best result was obtained with the partitioned analysis of each image through a sliding window, thus creating new images of smaller dimensions, reaching 86.77% mAP. As a final result, we estimate that the Deep PCB Dataset has a total of 1079.18 g of ICs, from which it would be possible to recover at least 909.94 g of metals and silicon elements from all WPCBs' ICs. Since there is a high variability in the compositions of WPCBs, it is possible to calculate the gross income for each WPCB and use it as a decision criterion for the type of pre-processing....

Publisher: University of Pernambuco

University of Pernambuco

The Federal University of Pernambuco was established in 1946, born out of the Faculty of Law of Olinda (which still exists as a faculty within the university today). The university operates three campuses in the Brazilian ...

Recife, Brazil

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Waste-Printed Circuit Board Recycling: Focusing on Preparing Polymer Composites and Geopolymers

Jun 07, 2021 | Qin Wang, Baogui Zhang, Shaoqi Yu, Jingjing Xiong, Zhitong Yao, Baoan Hu, and Jianhua Yan

The waste from end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment has become the fastest growing waste problem in the world. The difficult-to-treat waste-printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are nearly 3−6 wt % of the total electronic waste, generate great environmental concern nowadays. For WPCB treatment and recycling, the mechanical−physical method has turned out to be more technologically and economically feasible. In this work, the mechanical−physical treatment and recycling technologies for WPCBs were investigated, and future research was directed as well. Removing electric and electronic components(EECs) from WPCBs is critical for their crushing and metal recovery; however, environmentally friendly and high-efficiency removal techniques need be developed. Concentrated metals rich in Cu, Al, Au, Pb, and Sn recovered from WPCBs need be further refined to add to their economic values. The low value added nonmetallic fraction of waste-printed circuit boards (NMF-WPCBs) accounts for approximately 60 wt % of the WPCBs. From the perspective of environmental management, a zero-waste approach to recycling them should be developed to gain values. Preparing polymer composites and geopolymers offers many advantages and has potential applications in various fields, especially as construction and building materials. However, the mechanical and thermal properties of NMF-WPCBs composites should be further improved for preparing polymer composites. Surface modification or filler blending could be applied to improve the interfacial comparability between NMF-WPCBs and the polymer matrix. The NMFWPCBs shows potential in preparing cement mortar and geological polymers, but the environmental safety resulting from metals needs to be taken into account. This study will provide a significant reference for the industrial recycling of NMF-WPCBs...

Publisher: Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University, also colloquially referred to as Zheda, is an elite C9 League university located in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province. Founded in 1897, Zhejiang University is one of China's oldest, most selective, an

Zhejiang, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Industry 4.0 For Economic Developers Terms to Know

Jun 02, 2021 | Des Moines Area Community College

A glossary of Industry 4.0 Terms to Know...

Publisher: Des Moines Area Community College

Des Moines Area Community College

One of the finest educational institutions in America and for the seventh consecutive year, voted Best Place to Continue Your Education by CityView readers. The more you learn about DMACC, the more you will experience our truly...

Des Moines, Iowa, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Industry 4.0 Capturing value at scale in discrete manufacturing

Jun 02, 2021 | Christoph Schmitz, Andreas Tschiesner, Christian Jansen, Stefan Hallerstede, Florian Garms

With an estimated value creation potential for manufacturers and suppliers of USD 3.7 trillion in 2025,1 high hopes are set on Industry 4.0 to bring the next industrial revolution to discrete manufacturing. Yet, only about 30 percent of companies are capturing value from Industry 4.0 solutions at scale today. Approaches are dominated by envisioning technology development going forward rather than identifying areas of largest impact and tracking it back to Industry 4.0 value drivers. Further governance and organizational anchoring are often unclear. Resulting hurdles related to a lack of clarity regarding business value, limited resources, and an overwhelming number of potential use cases leave the majority of companies stuck in "pilot purgatory."...

Publisher: McKinsey & Company

McKinsey & Company

An American worldwide management consulting firm, founded in 1926 by University of Chicago professor James O. McKinsey, that advises on strategic management to corporations, governments, and other organizations.

New York, New York, USA

Consultant / Service Provider

A Theoretical Framework for Industry 4.0 and Its Implementation with Selected Practical Schedules

Jun 02, 2021 | Bo˙zena Gajdzik, Sandra Grabowska, Sebastian Saniuk

In recent years, there has been dynamic changes in the industrial environment as a result of further innovations called Industry 4.0 (I.4.0), especially in the field of digital technology and manufacturing. Despite numerous examples of the implementation of Industry 4.0 in enterprises, there is no general framework for the implementation of Industry 4.0 with a detailed schedule. Researching the ways of implementing Industry 4.0 is still a current and unexplored area of research. The main aim of the paper is to present the concept of the theoretical framework for Industry 4.0 implementation based on selected schedules of the Industry 4.0 implementation. The paper was based on information from literature review and analysis of pilot enterprise projects to Industry 4.0 (case study) that were conducted in selected enterprises. The paper presents the key components of the framework of Industry 4.0 and the basic stage of implementing the concept in the enterprises, paying attention to their sequence and time frames. The proposed approach is dedicated to researchers and practitioners who implement the concept of Industry 4.0 in enterprises...

Publisher: Silesian University of Technology

Silesian University of Technology

A university located in the Polish province of Silesia, with most of its facilities in the city of Gliwice. It was founded in 1945 by Polish professors of the Lwow Polytechnic, who were forced to leave their native city and move t

Gliwice, Poland

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Copper Electroplating Technology for Microvia Filling

May 26, 2021 | Mark Lefebvre, George Allardyce, Masaru Seita, Hideki Tsuchida, Masaru Kusaka, Shinjiro Hayashi

This paper describes a copper electroplating enabling technology for filling microvias. Driven by the need for faster, smaller and higher performance communication and electronic devices, build-up technology incorporating microvias has emerged as a viable multilayer printed circuit manufacturing technology. Increased wiring density, reduced line widths, smaller through-holes and microvias are all attributes of these High Density Interconnect (HDI) packages. Filling the microvias with conductive material allows the use of stacked vias and via in pad designs thereby facilitating additional packaging density. Other potential design attributes include thermal management enhancement and benefits for high frequency circuitry. Electrodeposited copper can be utilized for filling microvias and provides potential advantages over alternative via plugging techniques. The features, development, scale up and results of direct current (DC) and periodic pulse reverse (PPR) acid copper via filling processes, including chemistry and equipment, are described....

Publisher: Rohm and Haas/Advanced Materials

Rohm and Haas/Advanced Materials

CVD SILICON CARBIDE� from Advanced Materials

Woburn, Massachusetts, USA


Test Fixture Design Presentation ICT & FCT Test Fixtures

May 20, 2021 | Greg Dorsey & Sven F. Nocher

Quality Control is essential in production processes. In the PCB Assembly process there are several Quality Control steps or options. The most popular tests are the electrical (In-Circuit or ICT) and the function (functional or FCT/FVT) test. ICT test fixtures are standardized and there are several major test platforms available which are industry standards. For FCT applications there are many more variations possible due to the vast number of testers and interface approaches unique to each customer; also due to an endless list of applications which fall under the category of Functional Test (RF, High Current, LED test, Leak test etc.) Test Probes are a very important part in ICT as well as in FCT applications. If the wrong test probe (type, spring force, tip style etc.) is used, the test fixture will not work as intended. In addition the test probe must be installed correctly in order to work properly. This presentation will show general information and some guidelines for a proper Test Fixture design to assure the most efficient production....

Publisher: INGUN Pruefmittelbau GmbH

INGUN Pruefmittelbau GmbH

We are a globally operating company for Testing Equipment Manufacturing and offer am unsurpassed choice of Test Probes and Test Fixtures.

Konstanz , Germany


Design for Testability (DFT) to Overcome Functional Board Test Complexities in Manufacturing Test

May 20, 2021 | Louis Y. Ungar

Manufacturers test to ensure that the product is built correctly. Shorts, opens, wrong or incorrectly inserted components, even catastrophically faulty components need to be flagged, found and repaired. When all such faults are removed, however, functional faults may still exist at normal operating speed, or even at lower speeds. Functional board test (FBT) is still required, a process that still relies on test engineers' understanding of circuit functionality and manually developed test procedures. While functional automatic test equipment (ATE) has been reduced considerably in price, FBT test costs have not been arrested. In fact, FBT is a huge undertaking that can take several weeks or months of test engineering development, unacceptably stretching time to market. The alternative, of selling products that have not undergone comprehensive FBT is equally, if not more, intolerable....

Publisher: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.

A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.

The leading Test, ATE and Testability consulting and educational firm, offering various test related courses. Maintains the BestTest Directory, a test community knowledge base. Publishes The BestTest eNewsletter.

Los Angeles, California, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer, Training Provider

Rapid Deployment of Automated Test-System for High-Volume Automotive USB-C Hub

May 20, 2021 | Justin Gregg; Matt Krugman

Adoption and integration of USB-C chargers and hubs in automotive applications is driving a need for an updated approach to production tests due to USB-C's connector density, high bandwidth, and high power. We introduce a new paradigm in test-system development, micro-FCT (micro Functional Test), and demonstrate developing and deploying of an end-of-line (EOL) functional test-system which meets the strict automotive test requirements for a USB-C hub. Specification to deployment of the test-system was completed in less than 10-weeks, and test cycle time was 1/10th of the customer's requirements...

Publisher: Acroname


Acroname provides expertise and products for applications in embedded robotic, automation and control systems.

Boulder, Colorado, USA


iNEMI Project on Process Development of BiSn-Based Low Temperature Solder Pastes

May 13, 2021 | Haley Fu, Raiyo Aspandiar, Jimmy Chen, Shunfeng Cheng, Qin Chen, Richard Coyle, Sophia Feng, Mark Krmpotich, Ronald C. Lasky, Scott Mokler, Jagadeesh Radhakrishnan, Morgana Ribas, Brook Sandy-Smith, Kok Kwan Tang, Greg Wu, Anny Zhang, Wilson Zhen

The 2017 iNEMI Board and Assembly Roadmap forecasts that, due to economic, environmental and technical drivers, use of low temperature solder pastes will increase significantly and reach 10% of all solder paste used for board assembly by 2021....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

Low Melting Temperature Sn-Bi Solder: Effect of Alloying and Nanoparticle Addition on the Microstructural, Thermal, Interfacial Bonding, and Mechanical Characteristics

May 13, 2021 | Hyejun Kang, Sri Harini Rajendran and Jae Pil Jung

Sn-based lead-free solders such as Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Bi have been used extensively for a long time in the electronic packaging field. Recently, low-temperature Sn-Bi solder alloys attract much attention from industries for flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) applications. Low melting temperatures of Sn-Bi solders avoid warpage wherein printed circuit board and electronic parts deform or deviate from the initial state due to their thermal mismatch during soldering. However, the addition of alloying elements and nanoparticles Sn-Bi solders improves the melting temperature, wettability, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Improving the brittleness of the eutecticSn-58wt%Bi solder alloy by grain refinement of the Bi-phase becomes a hot topic. In this paper, literature studies about melting temperature, microstructure, inter-metallic thickness, and mechanical properties of Sn-Bi solder alloys upon alloying and nanoparticle addition are reviewed...

Publisher: University of Seoul

University of Seoul

A public university located in Seoul, South Korea. UOS is famous in South Korea for a large number of alumni working as national or municipal government officials. UOS is specialized in urban science and has top-tier programs ...

Seoul, South Korea

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Bare PCB inspection for Track cut, Track Short and Pad Damage using simple Image Processing Operations

May 06, 2021 | Anitha D B, Mahesh Rao

In this paper most commonly occurring Bare PCB defects such as Track Cut, Track short and Pad Damages are detected by Image processing techniques. Reference PCB without having any defects is compared with test PCB having defects to identify the defects and x-y coordinates of the center of the defects along with radii are obtained using Difference of Gaussian method and location of the individual type of defects are marked either by similar color or different colors. Result Analysis includes time taken for the inspection of a single defect, multiple similar defects, and multiple different defects. Time taken is ranging from 1.674 to 1.714 seconds if the individual type of defects are marked by different colors and 0.670 to 0.709 seconds if all the identified defects are marked by the same colors....

Publisher: Vidya Vikas Institute Of Engineering And Technology

Vidya Vikas Institute Of Engineering And Technology

Vidya Vikas Institute of Engineering & Technology (V.V.I.E.T) was established in 1997. It is a Private University of Engineering and Technology and has been ranked as one of the top 10 engineering colleges in Mysore, Karnataka.

Alanahally, Mysuru, Karnataka, India

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Bare PCB Inspection By Mean Of ECT Technique With Spin-Valve GMR Sensor

May 06, 2021 | K. Chomsuwan, S. Yamada, M. Iwahara, H. Wakiwaka, T. Taniguchi, and S. Shoji

The high-sensitive micro eddy-current testing (ECT) probe composed of planar meander coil as an exciter and spin-valve giant magneto-resistance (SV-GMR) sensor as a magnetic sensor for bare printed circuit board (PCB) inspection is proposed in this paper. The high-sensitive micro ECT probe detects the magnetic field distribution on the bare PCB and the image processing technique analyzes output signal achieved from the ECT probe to exhibit and to identify the defects occurred on the PCB conductor. The inspection results of the bare PCB model show that the proposed ECT probe with the image processing technique can be applied to bare PCB inspection. Furthermore, the signal variations are investigated to prove the possibility of applying the proposed ECT probe to inspect the high-density PCB that PCB conductor width and gap are less than 100 μm....

Publisher: Kanazawa University, ,

Kanazawa University, ,

The Kanazawa University is a national university of Japan in the city of Kanazawa, the capital of Ishikawa prefecture. Kanazawa University is divided into two main campuses: Kakuma and Takaramachi. University enrollment is ...

Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Deep Learning Based Defect Detection for Solder Joints on Industrial X-Ray Circuit Board Images

May 06, 2021 | Qianru Zhang, Meng Zhang, Chinthaka Gamanayakey, Chau Yueny, Zehao Gengz, Hirunima Jayasekaray, Xuewen Zhangz, Chia-wei Woox, Jenny Lowx, Xiang Liuz

Quality control is of vital importance during electronics production. As the methods of producing electronic circuits improve, there is an increasing chance of solder defects during assembling the printed circuit board (PCB). Many technologies have been incorporated for inspecting failed soldering, such as X-ray imaging, optical imaging, and thermal imaging. With some advanced algorithms, the new technologies are expected to control the production quality based on the digital images. However, current algorithms sometimes are not accurate enough to meet the quality control. Specialists are needed to do a follow-up checking. For automated X-ray inspection, joint of interest on the X-ray image is located by region of interest (ROI) and inspected by some algorithms. Some incorrect ROIs deteriorate the inspection algorithm....

Publisher: Southeast University (SEU)

Southeast University (SEU)

Southeast University is one of only 32 universities directly administered by the Chinese Department of Education, which are considered the top class universities in China.

Nanjing, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Fundamentals of Capillary Ion Chromatography

Apr 29, 2021 | Peter Bodsky and Frank Hoefler

In this work, we highlight the fundamental differences between conventional IC (4 mm and 2 mm) and Capillary Ion Chromatography....

Publisher: Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific is an American provisioner of scientific instrumentation, reagents and consumables, and software and services to healthcare, life science, and other laboratories in academia, government, and industry.

Sunnyvale, California, USA


Column Properties That Make An Impact On Ion Chromatography

Apr 29, 2021 | Carl Fisher and John Guajardo

For the separation of ionic species, ion chromatography (IC), a type of liquid chromatography, is the method of choice. The most critical component of this technique is the separation column, which is selected based on factors that include the specific analytes of interest, the sample type and the required detection levels. This article outlines the column parameters that impact the separation of charged species in solution using ion-exchange chromatography and the developments that have continued to redefine what is possible with an IC system....

Publisher: Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific is an American provisioner of scientific instrumentation, reagents and consumables, and software and services to healthcare, life science, and other laboratories in academia, government, and industry.

Sunnyvale, California, USA


Failure Analysis – Using Ion Chromatography And Ion Chromatography/Mass Spec (IC/MS)

Apr 29, 2021 | Terry Munson

Since the 1980s the electronics industry has utilized ion chromatography (IC) analysis to understand the relationship of ions, and some organics, to product reliability. From component and board fabrication to complete electronic assemblies and their end-use environment, IC analysis has been the de facto method for evaluating ionic cleanliness of electronic hardware....

Publisher: Foresite Inc.

Foresite Inc.

Foresite is a process consulting house and analytial laboratory dedicated to solving product reliability challenges for electronics manufacturers.

Kokomo, Indiana, USA

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Operation of a Vacuum Reflow Oven with Void Reduction Data

Apr 21, 2021 | Fred Dimock

Voids affect the thermal characteristics and mechanical properties of a solder joint, thereby affecting the reliability of the solder interconnect. The automotive sector in particular is requiring the mitigation of solder voids in various electronic control modules to the minimum possible level. Earlier research efforts performed to decrease voids involved varying the reflow profile, paste deposit, paste alloy composition, stencil aperture, and thickness....

Publisher: BTU International

BTU International

Global supplier of advanced thermal processing equipment and processes to the electronics assembly market.

North Billerica, Massachusetts, USA


Effect Of Vacuum Reflow On Solder Joint Voiding In Bumped Components

Apr 21, 2021 | Arvind Srinivasan Karthikeyan, Sa'd Hamasha, Michael Meilunas, Fred Dimock

Voids affect the thermal characteristics and mechanical properties of a solder joint, thereby affecting the reliability of the solder interconnect. The automotive sector in particular is requiring the mitigation of solder voids in various electronic control modules to the minimum possible level. Earlier research efforts performed to decrease voids involved varying the reflow profile, paste deposit, paste alloy composition, stencil aperture, and thickness. Due to the various advantages they offer, the use of Ball Grid Array packages is common across all industry sectors. They are also prone to process voiding issues. This study was performed to determine if vacuum assisted reflow process can help alleviate the voids in area array solder joints. Test parameters in this study largely focused on vacuum pressure level and vacuum dwell time....

Publisher: Auburn University

Auburn University

Auburn University is a public land-grant research university in Auburn, Alabama. With more than 24,600 undergraduate students and a total enrollment of more than 30,000 with 1,330 faculty members, Auburn is the second largest ...

Auburn University, Alabama, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Air purification and occupational health & safety in electronics production

Apr 16, 2021 | ULT

The overall process of manufacturing electronics assemblies is characterized by a number of very different procedures. Along the production chain, technologies for cutting, assembling, soldering, bonding, gluing, marking, potting, etc. are used, all of them have one thing in common: They produce airborne pollutants, some of which can have a significant impact on employees, manufacturing equipment and products - and for this reason need to be removed effectively and efficiently....

Publisher: ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT is a vendor of efficient fume extraction solutions for air purification. The company's systems are utilized for the removal of laser fumes, soldering fumes, odors, vapors, gases, dusts etc. in electronics production.

Okotoks, Alberta, Canada

Consultant / Service Provider, Manufacturer

Detection of PCB Soldering Defects using Template Based Image Processing Method

Apr 15, 2021 | Şaban Öztürk, Bayram Akdemir

In this study, a predefined template-based image processing system is proposed to automatically detect of PCB soldering defects that negatively affect circuit operation. The proposed system consists of a scaled inspection structure, a camera, an image processing algorithm merged with Fuzzy and template guided inspection process. The prototype is produced using a plastic material, depending on the focal length of the camera and the PCB size. Image processing step comprises two steps. Firstly, solder joints are determined and boxed using Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm....

Publisher: Selcuk University

Selcuk University

Selçuk University started education in the academic year of 1976-1977 with two faculties. Faculty of Science and Faculty of Literature, 7 departments, 327 students and 2 permanent lecturers. Selçuk University has significantly ...

Konya, Turkey

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Automated Inspection Of PCB Components Using A Genetic Algorithm Template-Matching Approach

Apr 15, 2021 | A. J. Crispin & V. Rankov

Automated inspection of surface mount PCB boards is a requirement to assure quality and to reduce manufacturing scrap costs and rework. This paper investigates methodologies for locating and identifying multiple objects in images used for surface mount device inspection. One of the main challenges for surface mount device inspection is component placement inspection....

Publisher: Springer-Verlag


Springer is a leading global scientific, technical and medical portfolio, providing researchers in academia, scientific institutions and corporate R&D departments with quality content through innovative information, products ...

LONDON, United Kingdom

Consultant / Service Provider

Automatic Visual Inspection of Printed Circuit Board for Defect Detection and Classification

Apr 15, 2021 | Vikas Chaudhary, Ishan R. Dave and Kishor P. Upla

Inspection of printed circuit board (PCB) has been a crucial process in the electronic manufacturing industry to guarantee product quality & reliability, cut manufacturing cost and to increase production. The PCB inspection involves detection of defects in the PCB and classification of those defects in order to identify the roots of defects. In this paper, all 14 types of defects are detected and are classified in all possible classes ......

Publisher: S. V. National Institute of Technology

S. V. National Institute of Technology

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology Surat, is a public technical university established by the Parliament of India in 1961. It is one of 31 National Institutes of Technology in India recognized by the Government ..

Surat, Gujarat, India

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Investigation of Factors That Influence Creep Corrosion

Apr 08, 2021 | Cherie Chen

Understand the sensitivities of the identified factors to Creep Corrosion. Correlate experimental test conditions to environment classification standards....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

Qualification Test Development for Creep Corrosion

Apr 08, 2021 | Prabjit Singh Simon Lee

Creep corrosion is not a new phenomenon, it has become more prevalent since the enactment of the European Union's Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) Directive on 1 July 2006. The directive bans the use of lead and other hazardous substances in products (where lead-based surface finishes offered excellent corrosion resistance). The higher melting temperatures of the lead-free solders and their poor wetting of copper metallization on PCBs forced changes to PCB laminates, surface finishes and processing temperature-time profiles. As a result, printed circuit boards might have higher risk of creep corrosion....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

Creep Corrosion of PWB Final Finishes: Its Cause and Prevention

Apr 08, 2021 | C. Xu, J. Smetana, J. Franey, G. Guerra, D. Fleming, W. Reents,

As the electronic industry moves to lead-free assembly and finer-pitch circuits, widely used printed wiring board (PWB) finish, SnPb HASL, has been replaced with lead-free and coplanar PWB finishes such as OSP, ImAg, ENIG, and ImSn. While SnPb HASL offers excellent corrosion protection of the underlying copper due to its thick coating and inherent corrosion resistance, the lead-free board finishes provide reduced corrosion protection to the underlying copper due to their very thin coating. For ImAg, the coating material itself can also corrode in more aggressive environments. This is an issue for products deployed in environments with high levels of sulfur containing pollutants encountered in the current global market. In those corrosive environments, creep corrosion has been observed and led to product failures in very short service life (1-5 years). Creep corrosion failures within one year of product deployment have also been reported. This has prompted an industry-wide effort to understand creep corrosion...

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent


Often referred to as "The Idea Factory" or "The Crown Jewel," Nokia Bell Labs has an unparalleled history of innovation output. Researchers at Nokia Bell Labs have been behind or involved in nearly every critical technological mil

New Providence, New Jersey, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Microbial Nanocellulose Printed Circuit Boards for Medical Sensing

Apr 01, 2021 | Jonathan D. Yuen, Lisa C. Shriver-Lake, Scott A. Walper, Daniel Zabetakis, Joyce C. Breger and David A. Stenger

We demonstrate the viability of using ultra-thin sheets of microbially grown nanocellulose to build functional medical sensors. Microbially grown nanocellulose is an interesting alternative to plastics, as it is hydrophilic, biocompatible, porous, and hydrogen bonding, thereby allowing the potential development of new application routes. Exploiting...

Publisher: U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the Department of the Navy's corporate laboratory, and it reports to the Chief of Naval Research. As the corporate laboratory of the Navy, NRL is the principal in-house component in the

Washington,, District of Columbia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Recommendations for Board Assembly of Infineon Thin Small Discrete Packages without Leads

Apr 01, 2021 | Infineon Technologies AG

This document provides information about the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) board assembly of Infineon Thin Small Non-leaded Packages (TSNP). The specific dimensions of the leadframe based inner setup depend on the size of the chip and the type of bonding. The field of application ranges from linear voltage regulators for weight-limited applications such as cellular phones and digital cameras to linear voltage regulators for the automotive sector....

Publisher: Infineon Technologies AG

Infineon Technologies AG

Infineon Technologies AG is a world leader in semiconductor solutions that make life easier, safer and greener. Microelectronics from Infineon are the key to a better future. In the 2020 fiscal year (ending 30 September), Infineon

Neubiberg, Germany


Study on Real-Time Test Script in Automated Test Equipment

Mar 24, 2021 | Chongwu Jiang, Bin Liu, Yongfeng Yin, Chang Liu

In this article we propose a generic test script for real=time embedded software system testing, which has been applied to ATE (Automated Test Equipment). After a summary of the theory about embedded software automated test based on test script, the design philosophy and implementation details are described. We have chosen an ATE and integrated python interpreter into it....

Publisher: Beihang University

Beihang University

Beihang University is designated as an eminent key university ( literally a "first-rate university" of type-A[3] ) by China's Ministry of Education Class A . It was one of China's key universities subsidized by "Project 985" fundi

Beijing, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Test Solution for Heatsinks in Power Electronics Applications

Mar 24, 2021 | Davide Piumatti, Stefano Borlo, Matteo Vincenzo Quitadamo, Matteo Sonza Reorda , Eric Giacomo Armando and Franco Fiori

Power electronics technology is widely used in several areas, such as in the railways, automotive, electric vehicles, and renewable energy sectors. Some of these applications are safety critical, e.g., in the automotive domain. The heat produced by power devices must be efficiently dissipated to allow them to work within their operational thermal limits. Moreover ......

Publisher: Politecnico di Torino

Politecnico di Torino

To educate, discover and innovate to impact on a rapidly changing society

Torino TO, Italy

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Design Guidelines For In-Circuit Testability

Mar 24, 2021 | JJS Manufacturing

In-circuit test (ICT) has remained one of the most popular and cost-effective test methods for medium and high volume printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) for many years. This is due to its component-level fault diagnosis capability- and its speed....

Publisher: JJS Manufacturing

JJS Manufacturing

JJS Manufacturing is an Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) partner, offering low risk, end-to-end procurement, manufacture and supply chain solutions. From our sophisticated manufacturing facilities in both Lutterworth (UK)

Lutterworth, United Kingdom


Analyzing the Impact of X-ray Tomography on the Reliability of Integrated Circuits

Mar 18, 2021 | Halit Dogan, Md Mahbub Alam, Navid Asadizanjani, Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Domenic Forte and Mark Tehranipoor

X-ray tomography is a promising technique that can provide micron level, internal structure, and three dimensional (3D) information of an integrated circuit (IC) component without the need for serial sectioning or decapsulation. This is especially useful for counterfeit IC detection as demonstrated by recent work. Although the components remain physically intact during tomography, the effect of radiation on the electrical functionality is not yet fully investigated. In this paper we analyze the impact of X-ray tomography on the reliability of ICs with different fabrication technologies....

Publisher: University of Connecticut

University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut is a public land-grant research university in Storrs, Connecticut. It was founded in 1881. The primary 4,400-acre campus is in Storrs, Connecticut, approximately a half hour's drive from Hartford and

Storrs, Connecticut, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Using X-Ray Systems To Detect Counterfeit And Reworked Electronic Components

Mar 18, 2021 | Art Ogg

Much has been said and written about the accuracy of visual attribute inspections of potentially counterfeit components. The techniques and procedures being used to inspect counterfeit and reworked electronic components in the open marketplace can be quite effective in most cases....

Publisher: World Micro

World Micro

World Micro is a leading franchised distributor of electronic parts and components. Established in 1994, World Micro takes pride in providing superior service and world class support that our customers expect and deserve.

Roswell, Georgia, USA


Latent short circuit failure in high-rel PCBs caused by lack of cleanliness of PCB processes and base materials

Mar 10, 2021 | Stan Heltzel

Latent short circuit failures have been observed during testing of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) for power distribution of spacecraft of the European Space Agency. Root cause analysis indicates that foreign fibers may have contaminated the PCB laminate. These fibers can provide a pathway for electromigration if they bridge the clearance between nets of different potential in the presence of humidity attracted by the hygroscopic laminate resin. PCB manufacturers report poor yield caused by contamination embedded in laminate. Inspections show ......

Publisher: European Space Agency

European Space Agency

The European Space Agency is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris, ESA has a worldwide staff of about 2,200 in 2018 and an annu

75345 Paris CEDEX 7, France

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

MPPE/SEBS Composites with Low Dielectric Loss for High-Frequency Copper Clad Laminates Applications

Mar 04, 2021 | Jianming Guo, Hao Wang, Caixia Zhang, Qilong Zhang, and Hui Yang

Copper clad laminates (CCLs) with low dissipation factor (Df) are urgently needed in the fields of high-frequency communications devices. A novel resin matrix of modified poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4- phenylene ether) (MPPE) and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) was employed in the fabrication of high-frequency copper clad laminates (CCLs). The composites were reinforced by E-glass fabrics, which were modified with phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTES). The composite laminates obtained exhibited impressive dielectric loss of 0.0027 at 10 GHz when the weight ratio of MPPE to SEBS was 5:1....

Publisher: Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University, also colloquially referred to as Zheda, is an elite C9 League university located in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province. Founded in 1897, Zhejiang University is one of China's oldest, most selective, an

Zhejiang, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Progressive Failure Analysis of Laminates with Embedded Wrinkle Defects Based on an Elastoplastic Damage Model

Mar 04, 2021 | Zhi Hua Ning, Guan Liang Huo, Ren Huai Liu, Wei Lin Wu and Jia Ming Xie

Out-of-plane wrinkling has a significant influence on the mechanical performance of composite laminates. Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the progressive failure behavior of fiber-reinforced composite laminates with out-of-plane wrinkle defects subjected to axial compression. To describe the material degradation, a three-dimensional elastoplastic damage model with four damage modes (i.e., fiber tensile failure, matrix failure, fiber kinking/splitting, and delamination) was developed based on the LaRC05 criterion. To improve the computational efficiency in searching for the fracture angle in the matrix failure analysis, a high-efficiency and robust modified algorithm that combines the golden section search method with an inverse interpolation based on an existing study is proposed....

Publisher: Jinan University

Jinan University

Jinan University is a public research university based in Tianhe District, Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, China. It is one of the oldest universities established in China, tracing back to the Qing dynasty.

Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Fracture Toughness Analysis of Epoxy-Recycled Rubber-Based Composite Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets for Structural Applications in Automotive and Aeronautics

Feb 25, 2021 | Alaeddin Burak Irez, Emin Bayraktar and Ibrahim Miskioglu

This study proposes a new design of lightweight and cost-ecient composite materials for the aeronautic industry utilizing recycled fresh scrap rubber, epoxy resin, and graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs). After manufacturing the composites, their bending strength and fracture characteristics were investigated by three-point bending (3PB) tests. Halpin–Tsai homogenization adapted to composites containing GnPs was used to estimate the moduli of the composites, and satisfactory agreement with the 3PB test results was observed....

Publisher: Université Paris-Saclay

Université Paris-Saclay

LMT-Cachan, founded in 1975, is a joint research unit common to ENS Paris-Saclay and the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS, INSIS-Institute for Engineering and Systems Sciences).

91190 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

Humitector™ Type 2 Non-Reversible Humidity Indicator Cards from Clariant help assure the integrity of moisture-sensitive surface-mount devices

Feb 20, 2021 | Clariant

Customers must be able to rely on accurate humidity indication as an assurance of SMD quality and fitness for processing and use. Without it, they might accept SMDs from suppliers that have already been irreparably damaged by moisture during storage or transit. Or, they might approve for processing SMDs that have been improperly or insufficiently heat-dried. Beyond the processing questions, there are financial questions: Where did the dry pack problems originate and who--supplier, customer, shipper--is financially responsible for the damaged SMDs? In response, Clariant, the originator of the color change humidity indicator card, and a member of the JEDEC's Subcommittee 14.1, "Reliability and Test Methods for Packaged Devices," created a new "non-reversible" halogen and cobalt dichloride free humidity indicator card. This HIC combines two reversible indicators (5% and 10%) with a new non-reversible (60% RH) indicator spot. (Figure 1) The 5% and 10% reversible spots work the way similar indicators do: they change color from blue (dry), to lavender, to pink (wet) to indicate humidity exposure at the indicated levels. If humidity levels drop, they will gradually revert back to blue....

Publisher: Clariant Cargo & Device Protection

Clariant Cargo & Device Protection

Clariant Cargo & Device Protection offers a complete portfolio of desiccants and humidity indicator cards for use in dry packing.

Belen, New Mexico, USA

Manufacturer, Other

Electrochemical Sensors For Nitrogen Species: A Review

Feb 17, 2021 | Heejeong Ryua, Dorian Thompson, Yuankai Huang, BaikunLi, Yu Leia

This review provides an overview of electrochemical sensors for nitrogen species, especially, ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite. Due to the extensive anthropogenic activities, the concentration of nitrogen species has been dramatically increased in the environment. In particular, fertilizers containing ammonium and nitrate have been extensively used in agriculture where as nitrite-included additives or preservatives have been used in food industry. Since excessive nitrogen species have an adverse effect to environment and human health such as eutrophication and methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome), efforts have been made to develop efficient monitoring methods. On that account, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for nitrate and nitrite to be 10mg/L nitrate-N and 1mg/L nitrite-N in drinking water, respectively. Typical analytical methods for nitrogen species are chromatography or spectrometry. However, these methods require expensive instrumentations, skilled operator, and considerable sample pretreatment and analysis time. As an alternative approach, electrochemical sensors have been explored to monitor nitrogen species owing to its simplicity, superior sensitivity, versatility, rapidity, field applicability, and selectivity. In this review, electrochemical based detection methods for nitrogen species especially ammonium, nitrate and nitrite are systematically discussed, including the fundamentals of electrochemical techniques, sensing mechanisms, and the performance of each sensor. doi.org/10.1016/j.snr.2020.100022...

Publisher: University of Connecticut

University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut is a public land-grant research university in Storrs, Connecticut. It was founded in 1881. The primary 4,400-acre campus is in Storrs, Connecticut, approximately a half hour's drive from Hartford and

Storrs, Connecticut, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory / School

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Jade Series Selective Soldering Machines

Jetting Pump for Integration