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The Effects of Temperature and Solute Diffusion on Volume Change in Sn-Bi Solder Alloys

Published:

April 26, 2022

Author:

Qichao Hao, Xin F. Tan , Qinfen Gu, Keith Sweatman, Stuart D. Mcdonald, and Kazuhiro Nogita1

Abstract:

The different rates of thermal expansion of the many materials that make up an electronic assembly combined with temperature fluctuations are the driver of the thermal fatigue failure of solder joints. A characteristic of the Sn-Bi system, which provided the basis for many of the low process temperature solder alloys that the electronics industry is now adopting, is the very temperature-sensitive solubility of Bi and Sn in the other phase. In this study, in situ synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction was used to characterize the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of the bSn and Bi phases in Sn-57wt%Bi and Sn-37wt%Bi. The effects of temperature and solute were separated by comparing with the data from pure bSn and pure Bi and verified using density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, the coefficients of thermal expansion of bSn and during heating were also derived to reveal the thermal expansion behavior.

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